August 12, 2012
Diverse Nature of Psychology
Psychology has a diverse nature. Diversity describes the diverse nature of the field not diversity in human race. The following paper will define two examples of sub-disciplines of psychology and two theories connected to the sub-disciplines, how these two examples connect with contemporary society other than psychology, relate sub-disciplines to a theoretical perspective, and my psychological contribution to society. Diversity within the field of psychology is strength and a challenge. There are four primary areas which are clinical, counseling, school, and industrial/organizational psychology. Sub-fields exist in these primary areas. Each sub-field has distinct unique theories to help encourage the growth in psychology. A psychologist that offers a broader view when considering theoretical approach in areas, the more understanding they offer their patients or clients. The simple truth is along with diversity comes help for everyone and every problem. According to (Park, N., & Peterson, C., 2009) "one of psychology’s strengths has been its willingness to embrace different purposes, perspectives, and approaches, and this recommendation is in the spirit of the field’s history". Two sub-disciplines of focus are personality psychology and counseling psychology. Personality psychology is the study of individual’s personalities and what makes people who they are. “Within personality psychology, some propose that aspects of behavior and cognition can be explained with reference to personality traits. However, certain conceptual and logical issues cast doubt upon the adequacy of traits as coherent explanatory constructs” (Boag, 2011, pg. 223). Two personality theories are five factory theory and trait theory. According to the trait theory, personality is a production of numerous traits combined. Traits are personality characteristics that influence an individual’s behavior. “McCrae and Costa (1995) define traits as ‘‘dimensions of individual differences in tendencies to show consistent patterns of thoughts, feelings, and action’’ and which ‘‘transcend situational constraints’’” (Bog, 2011, pg. 230). Personality traits can simply be situation, which means that depending on what situation the individual is in can influence their personality. The five factor theory is based on five basic divisions of personality traits which are extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness. McCrae especially favored this theory simply because it was universal. This theory could fit many individuals regardless of culture or up-bringing. The five factory theory is not only universal, but also has biological origins. The fact that personality psychology can alter depending on situational occurrences is important to remember. Counseling psychology is the sub-discipline where not all individuals go on to become clinical psychology but only counseling psychologists. Counseling psychology focuses on the welling being of individuals by counseling them to reach their full potential as human beings. Counseling psychology also differs from clinical psychology because counseling psychology works towards prevention of symptoms instead of only treatment. “As a specialty within professional psychology, counseling psychology has a long history of exploring its identity and core values as represented with terms such as scientist–practitioner, vocational/work/career, normal development, diversity, relationships, prevention, strength-based, holism, social justice, and collaborative multidisciplinary practice, and the diversity statement” (Nicholas & Stern, 2011, pg. 332). Two theories connected to clinical psychology are psychoanalytical theory by Sigmund Freud and psychosocial theory by Erik Erickson. Psychoanalytical theory has three main parts which are the id, the ego, and the super...