Metabolic Engineering

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METABOLIC ENGINEERING2

AIMS OF METABOLIC ENGINEERING2
CHARACTERISTICS OF METABOLIC ENGINEERING2
IMPORTANCE OF METABOLIC ENGINEERING3
THE METHODS3
REQUIREMENTS FOR METABOLIC ENGINEERING4
RE-CONSTRUCTING THE MODEL4

TERMINOLOGY4

METABOLIC FLUX ANALYSIS (MFA)4

METABOLIC CONTROL ANALYSES6

DATABASES7

IN SILICO EXPERIMENTS8

APPLICATION AREAS OF METABOLIC ENGINEERING8

METABOLIC ENGINEERING OF GEOBACILLUS THERMOGLUCOSIDASIUS…………………………………9

REFERENCES11

METABOLIC ENGINEERING

Metabolic engineering is the directed improvement of product formation or cellular properties through the modification of specific biochemical reaction(s) or the introduction of new one(s) with the use of recombinant DNA technology. The field emerged during the past decade, and powered by techniques from applied molecular biology and reaction engineering, it is becoming a focal point of research activity in biological and biochemical engineering, cell physiology, and applied microbiology. Metabolic engineering was firstly suggested by Jay Bailey in 1991. It was embraced then by both engineers and life scientists who saw in it the opportunity to capture the potential of sequence and other information generated from genomics research.

AIMS OF METABOLIC ENGINEERING

The aims of metabolic engineering can be summarized as to improve the yield and productivity of native products, to extend the range of substrates, to produce the products that are new to the host cell, or entirely novel, to improve general cellular properties ,to improve the resistance against pests and diseases in plants or human, and to lower the level of undesired compounds.

CHARACTERISTICS OF METABOLIC ENGINEERING

As with all traditional fields of engineering, metabolic engineering too encompasses the two defining steps of analysis and synthesis. Since metabolic engineering emerged with DNA recombination as the enabling technology, attention initially was focused on the synthetic side of this field: expression of new genes in various host cells, amplification of endogenous enzymes, deletion of genes or modulation of enzymatic activity, transcriptional or enzymatic deregulation, etc. As such, metabolic engineering was the tachnological manifestation of applied molecular biology with very little engineering content.. A more important engineering component can be found in the analytical side of this field. Some concerns that are elucidated by analytical side of metabolic engineering are the identification of the important parameters that define the physiological state, the utilization of this information to elucidate the control structure of a metabolic network and then proposal of rational targets for modification to achieve a certain purpose, the assessment of the true biochemical impact of such genetic and enzymatic modifications to design the next step of pathway modifications.

On the synthetic side, a novel aspect of metabolic engineering is the focus on integrated metabolic pathways instead of individual reactions. As such, it examines complete biochemical reaction networks. Observations about the behavior of the overall system are the best guide for further rational decomposition and analysis.

IMPORTANCE OF METABOLIC ENGINEERING

It is considered that the most important contribution of metabolic engineering is the emphasis on metabolic fluxes and their control under in vivo conditions.

An important objective of metabolic engineering is to understand the function of metabolic pathways in their entirety, preferably through the integration of the constituent biochemical reactions. Another important content of this field is the elucidation of key metabolic branch points, as a result the control of metabolic pathway can be applied effectively. Furthermore, metabolic fluxes provide a generic basis of comparison of strain...
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