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CHAPTER 5 : Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behavior

Consumer Buyer Behavior
• … buying behavior of final consumers - individuals and households who buy goods and services for personal consumption

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Model of Consumer Behavior
Marketing and Other Stimuli Buyer Responses
Product Choice Brand Choice Dealer Choice

Marketing
• Product • Price • Place • Promotion Buyer’s “Black Box”

 Buyer Characteristics

Other
• Economic • Technological • Political • Cultural

 Buyer Decision Process

Purchase Timing Purchase Amount

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Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior

Cultural

Social
•Reference groups •Family •Roles and status

Personal
•Age and life-cycle •Occupation •Economic situation •Lifestyle •Personality and self-concept

Psychological
•Motivation •Perception •Learning •Beliefs and attitudes

•Culture •Subculture •Social class

Buyer

Most basic influences Broadest, deepest

Most specific Most individual

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Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior –
Cultural Factors
Culture - the most basic cause of a person's wants and behavior

• set of values, perceptions, wants & behavior learned by a member of society (learned from family & social institutions)

• achievement & success, activity & involvement, efficiency & practicality, progress, material comfort, individualism, freedom, humanitarianism, youthfulness, fitness & health Subculture - groups of people with shared value systems based on

common life experiences and situations (e.g., based on nationality, religion, race, geographic location, age, etc.) • represent important market segments  e.g., Hispanic, African-American, Asian-American  e.g., Gen Y, Gen X, Baby Boomers, Mature Market 5

Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior –
Cultural Factors
Social Class - Society’s relatively permanent and ordered
divisions, where members share similar values, interests, and behaviors (including buying behavior) • Based on resources, power, prestige • Measured by
 Occupation

 Wealth and income (both amount and source)  Education  Housing, neighborhood, possessions, values • In U.S., social classes are loosely defined  Lines between social classes are not fixed and rigid

 High social class mobility – can move up or down
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Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior – Cultural Factors
Major American Social Classes

Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior–
Social Factors
•Reference Groups - most influential for purchase and use of

products that are visible to others
Reference Groups – direct (face-to-face) or indirect points of comparison or reference in forming a person’s attitudes or behavior. Membership groups - Groups with direct influence and to which a person belongs (e.g., friends, family) Aspirational groups - Groups an individual wishes to belong to •Opinion leaders – Also called influentials or leading adopters - People within a reference group who exert social influence on Buzz marketing : enlisting or creating opinion leaders to spread the word about their brands Family - most important consumer buying organization in

society, and an influential reference group • Changing roles and changing family structures 8

Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior–
Personal Factors
Personal Influences

Age and life cycle stage

Occupation

Economic situation

Personality & self-concept Brand personality

Family life cycle: transition g changes buyer behavior Lifestyle – Psychographics

Activities
(works, hobbies, shopping, sports, social events)

Interests
(food, fashion, family, recreation)

Opinions
(about themselves, social issues, business, products)

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Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior––
Psychological Factors
Motivation – driving force behind behavior, resulting from tension  Motive = a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct a person to seek satisfaction • Freud – unconscious motives • Maslow – hierarchy of needs

Perception – process by which people...
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