TRANSLATING ORDINARY LANGUAGE STATEMENTS INTO CATEGORICAL FORM
1. Terms without Nouns
a. Some roses are red. = Some roses are red flowers.
i. This proposition has NO NOUN in the predicate
ii. We insert “flowers” into the predicate:
b. Some snakes are poisonous. = Some snakes are poisonous animals.
c. No craftsmen are careless. = No craftsmen are careless people.
2. Non Standard Verbs
d. Some college students will become evaluated. = Some college students are persons who will become evaluated.
iii. The word “will” is not a standard form.
iv. To write this proposition in standard form, we insert “are” for the copula and “persons who” for the predicate.
e. Some birds fly south during the winter. = Some birds are animals that fly south during winter.
f. All foxes love to eat chicken. = All foxes are animals that love to eat chicken.
3. Singular Propositions
g. George went home. = All persons identical to George went home. = All persons identical to George are persons who went home.
v. Singular propositions refer to a specific noun. This type of statement lacks proper quantifier, subject term, copula and predicate term.
vi. In order to correct this statement, we insert a quantifier: “All” (this indicates parameters)
vii. We insert “persons identical to” to give parameters to the subject.
viii. Now we have to insert a copula “are” and “persons who” for the predicate.
h. Juan Ponce Enrile lead the Impeachment Court. = All persons identical to Juan Ponce Enrile are persons who lead the Impeachment Court.
i. Mt. Apo can’t be found in the U.S. = No mountains identical to Mt. Apo are mountains that can’t be found in the U.S.
ix. In this, Mt. Apo is a mountain so “mountains” is the one added in the subject term.
j. Sandra did not go shopping. = No persons identical to Sandra are persons... [continues]
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