TRANSLATING ORDINARY LANGUAGE STATEMENTS INTO CATEGORICAL FORM 1. Terms without Nouns
a. Some roses are red. = Some roses are red flowers.
i. This proposition has NO NOUN in the predicate
ii. We insert “flowers” into the predicate:
b. Some snakes are poisonous. = Some snakes are poisonous animals. c. No craftsmen are careless. = No craftsmen are careless people. 2. Non Standard Verbs
d. Some college students will become evaluated. = Some college students are persons who will become evaluated. iii. The word “will” is not a standard form.
iv. To write this proposition in standard form, we insert “are” for the copula and “persons who” for the predicate. e. Some birds fly south during the winter. = Some birds are animals that fly south during winter. f. All foxes love to eat chicken. = All foxes are animals that love to eat chicken. 3. Singular Propositions
g. George went home. = All persons identical to George went home. = All persons identical to George are persons who went home. v. Singular propositions refer to a specific noun. This type of statement lacks proper quantifier, subject term, copula and predicate term. vi. In order to correct this statement, we insert a quantifier: “All” (this indicates parameters) vii. We insert “persons identical to” to give parameters to the subject. viii. Now we have to insert a copula “are” and “persons who” for the predicate. h. Juan Ponce Enrile lead the Impeachment Court. = All persons identical to Juan Ponce Enrile are persons who lead the Impeachment Court. i. Mt. Apo can’t be found in the U.S. = No mountains identical to Mt. Apo are mountains that can’t be found in the U.S. ix. In this, Mt. Apo is a mountain so “mountains” is the one added in the subject term. j. Sandra did not go shopping. = No persons identical to Sandra are persons who went shopping. 4. Adverbs and Pronouns
k. He always wears a suit to work. = All times he goes to work are times he wears a suit. x. Where, Wherever, Nowhere – Adverbs = Translate using “places” xi. When, Anytime, Never, Always – Adverbs = Translate using “times” xii. Who, Anyone, What, Anything – Adverbs = Translate using “pronouns” and “things” xiii. Since “always” is a temporal adverb, we use “times” to translate it. l. Nowhere in Hawaii are there any glaciers. = No places in Hawaii are places there are glaciers. xiv. Since “nowhere” is a spatial adverb, we use “places” to translate it. m. Whoever works hard will succeed. = All persons who work hard are persons who will succeed. n. She goes where she chooses. = All places she chooses to go are places she goes. xv. In here, “chooses to go” is put in.
o. She does what she wants. = All acts that she wants to do are acts she does. xvi. Because there are no adverbs used, we use nouns and refer to #1. 5. Unexpressed Quantifiers
p. Emeralds are green gems. = All emeralds are green gems. xvii. Here, we lack quantifiers so you just add: “All, No, Some” q. There are lions in the zoo. = Some lions are animals in the zoo. xviii. Here, lions in the zoo do not mean all lions so “some” is used. r. A tiger is a mammal. = All tigers are mammals.
s. A tiger roared. = Some tigers are animals that roared. t. There is a tavern in the town. = Some taverns are things in the town. 6. Non Standard Quantifiers
u. A few soldiers are heroes. = Some soldiers are heroes. v. Not every voter is a Democrat. = Some voters are not Democrats. xix. In here, he quantity is expressed but there are no standard quantifiers so it is added. CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM
Syllogism – deductive argument consisting of two premises and one conclusion. * Three categorical propositions