MAN Midterm Study Guide
Management – The process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives in an efficient and ethical manner. o
Manager role is constantly evolving. Effective managers are team players empowered by the willing and active support of others. •
Organizational Behavior – An interdisciplinary field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the performance and attitudes of individuals and groups in organizations. o
OB is both research and application oriented.
3 basic levels of analysis: individual, group, and organizational.
OB is a horizontal discipline that cuts across virtually every job category, business function, and professional specialty. o
OB comes from a number of disciplines: psychology (largest), sociology, social psychology, anthropology, and others. •
Globalization leads to different societal cultures which affect management. o
Societal cultures – socially derived, taken-for-granted assumptions about how to think, act, perceive, and feel. •
Theory X – Assumption that employees are pessimistic, negative, typical of how managers perceive employees o
Theory Y – The more modern and positive assumptions about employees being responsible and creative.
Employees believe that Theory X management practices are the major barrier to productivity improvement and employee well-being. •
Human Capital – The productive potential of an individual’s knowledge and actions. •
Social Capital – The productive potential resulting from strong relationships, good will, trust, and cooperative effort. Social capital emphasizes relationships. •
Types of questions in OB:
What factors influence organization-oriented behavior and attitudes? o
What can managers do to influence employee behavior and attitudes? o
Do assumptions about work translate across organization, across culture? o
How do individuals and groups arrive at decisions?
What leadership behaviors are most effective?
What factors influence whether employees feel fairly treated? o
What are some of the best approaches to managing job performance? o
How does an organization’s structure and culture impact individual performance? •
OB is not just common sense because it uses multiple sciences and statistical studies to back its claims. •
The world and OB are not usually black and white. There are a lot of gray areas, which make decisions difficult and complex. (Ethics and morals). The gray in OB consists of complexities, multiple perspectives, contingencies, and nuances. •
Historical roots of OB (1930s)S:
The legalization of union-management collective bargaining in the US in 1935 caused management to start looking for new ways to deal with employees. o
Behavioral scientists conducting on-the-job research started calling for more attention to the “human” factor. o
Essential to the human relations movement were the writings of Elton Mayo and Mary Parker Follett (The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization). o
Douglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise, which formulated Theory X and Theory Y. Chapter 2:
Social Perception Model (4 Stages):
In the first 3 stages (selective attention/comprehension, encoding and simplification, and storage and retention), the individual observes social information and stores it in memory. o
In the final stage (retrieval and response), the individual turns mental representations into judgments and decisions. •
Common perceptual errors:
Halo effect – A rater forms an overall impression about an object and then uses that impression to bias ratings about the object. o
Leniency effect – A personal characteristic that leads an individual to consistently evaluate other people or objects in an extremely positive fashion. o
Central tendency error – The tendency to avoid all extreme judgments and rate people and objects as average or neutral. o
Recency Effect – The tendency to remember recent information. If...
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