•Management – The process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives in an efficient and ethical manner. oManager role is constantly evolving. Effective managers are team players empowered by the willing and active support of others. •Organizational Behavior – An interdisciplinary field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the performance and attitudes of individuals and groups in organizations. oOB is both research and application oriented.
3 basic levels of analysis: individual, group, and organizational. OB is a horizontal discipline that cuts across virtually every job category, business function, and professional specialty. oOB comes from a number of disciplines: psychology (largest), sociology, social psychology, anthropology, and others. •Globalization leads to different societal cultures which affect management. oSocietal cultures – socially derived, taken-for-granted assumptions about how to think, act, perceive, and feel. •McGregor’s Theories:
oTheory X – Assumption that employees are pessimistic, negative, typical of how managers perceive employees oTheory Y – The more modern and positive assumptions about employees being responsible and creative. Employees believe that Theory X management practices are the major barrier to productivity improvement and employee well-being. •Human Capital – The productive potential of an individual’s knowledge and actions. •Social Capital – The productive potential resulting from strong relationships, good will, trust, and cooperative effort. Social capital emphasizes relationships. •Types of questions in OB:
oWhat factors influence organization-oriented behavior and attitudes? oWhat can managers do to influence employee behavior and attitudes? oDo assumptions about work translate across organization, across culture? oHow do individuals and groups arrive at decisions?
oWhat leadership behaviors are most effective?
oWhat factors influence whether employees feel fairly treated? oWhat are some of the best approaches to managing job performance? oHow does an organization’s structure and culture impact individual performance? •OB is not just common sense because it uses multiple sciences and statistical studies to back its claims. •The world and OB are not usually black and white. There are a lot of gray areas, which make decisions difficult and complex. (Ethics and morals). The gray in OB consists of complexities, multiple perspectives, contingencies, and nuances. •Historical roots of OB (1930s)S:
oThe legalization of union-management collective bargaining in the US in 1935 caused management to start looking for new ways to deal with employees. oBehavioral scientists conducting on-the-job research started calling for more attention to the “human” factor. oEssential to the human relations movement were the writings of Elton Mayo and Mary Parker Follett (The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization). oDouglas McGregor wrote The Human Side of Enterprise, which formulated Theory X and Theory Y. Chapter 2:
•Social Perception Model (4 Stages):
oIn the first 3 stages (selective attention/comprehension, encoding and simplification, and storage and retention), the individual observes social information and stores it in memory. oIn the final stage (retrieval and response), the individual turns mental representations into judgments and decisions. •Common perceptual errors:
oHalo effect – A rater forms an overall impression about an object and then uses that impression to bias ratings about the object. oLeniency effect – A personal characteristic that leads an individual to consistently evaluate other people or objects in an extremely positive fashion. oCentral tendency error – The tendency to avoid all extreme judgments and rate people and objects as average or neutral. oRecency Effect – The tendency to remember recent information. If...