Lecture Notes

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^Definition of Microbiology – the study of microorganisms, which are organisms or agents, which are too small to be observed with the unaided eye. Objects having a diameter of less than 0.1mm cannot be seen with out the use of a microscope. Why do we study microbiology? Because microorganisms have a close association with us – the microbes are in us, on us and everything around us. They are essential for our own survival – we need them, they do not need us. Food Microbiology – a field on applied microbiology that deals with the production of food by the use and action of microorganisms and the unwanted presence of foodbourne pathogens in our food supply. Microorganisms are necessary for the production/synthesis of: 1. Bread 7. Sauerkraut 13. Antibiotics 2. Cheese 8. Some types of olives 14. Vaccines 3. Beer 9. Soy sauce 15. Amino acids 4. Wine 10. Tofu 16. Vinegar 5. Yogurt 11. Enzymes 17. Poi 6. Pickles 12. Vitamins 18. Sugars * Microorganisms use many nutrients that the host don’t need or use and therefore keep pathogens from establishing themselves on or in our body by competitive exclusion. * Microbiology is the study of …ologies

Bacteriology – study of bacteria
phycology – study of algae
Mycology – study of yeast and mold
Virology – study of viruses (acellular)
Protozoology- study of protozoa
“Prionology” – study of prions (acellular)
Source and Definition of Infection
Pathogen – a disease causing organism
Host – a person who temporarily harbors organisms
Reservoir – the place where a pathogen lives naturally: the soil, an animal’s blood stream, a human colon, etc. Colony – when organisms temporarily survive in a place outside their normal habitat but cause no disease. Colonization may occur on inanimate objects (fomites) or within a human host. Commensal Organism – (“Normal Flora”) – an organism that lives harmlessly at a specific site within a human host. Note: commensal organisms may become pathogens when they move to a different location with the host. Example, bacteria in our noses is good in our noses; if we pick and move the bacteria to another site it is harmful. Carrier – a person who unnaturally harbors a pathogen for a long period of time but exhibits no symptoms of the disease. The carrier may be capable of transmitting the pathogen and the disease to another person. Infection – the condition whereby colonization within a human host causes disease. Transmissible – the ability of an infection to spread from one person to another Contagious – the concept that a disease can be transmissible Communicable – the concept that a disease can be transmissible Routes of Transmission

Iatrogenic – caused by health-care professional as a result of some treatment or procedure Nosocomial – acquired within the hospital environment, that’s why you get the fuck out of the hospital as soon as possible. Community acquired – acquired outside the hospital environment Horizontal – transmission of infection from person to person: direct contact, respiratory droplets, fecal-oral route, sexually transmitted disease (STD); etc. Vertical – infected mother transmits to her unborn/newborn child. In-utero – across placenta, ascending to uterus from vagina At birth – passage through vagina

After birth – breast feeding
Vector-borne – pathogens are introduced into the host by intervention of some insect. The insect is the vector. The reservoir for vector-borne pathogens is usually some animal. The human is the host. TICKS Zoonotic – zoonotic pathogens have animals as their reservoirs, infection is spread to human hosts by direct contact with the animals; by animal bites o scratches; by drinking water that was exposed to animal urine or feces; or by ingestion of food products made from the animals; in some cases,...
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