Kingdom Monera

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Kingdom Monera
Nerissa Mae F. Dadores

MONERANS
* Oldest and most abundant organisms.
* Unicellular organisms without a nucleus.
* Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms. They are the smallest, simplest organisms. * Microscopic & Undergoes Asexual reproduction.

HISTORY
The taxon Monera was first proposed as a phylum by Ernst Haeckel in 1866. Subsequently, the taxon was raised to the rank of kingdom in 1925 by Édouard Chatton. The last commonly accepted mega-classification with the taxon Monera was the five-kingdom classification system established by Robert Whittaker in 1969.

Bacteria - small one celled monerans.
* Bacteria like a warm, dark, and moist environment
They are found almost everywhere: water, air, soil, food, skin, inside the body and on most objects.

3 Shapes of Bacteria
Bacteria are classified by shape into 3 groups:
Spiral: spirilla
Rod-shaped: bacilli, bacillus
Round: cocci

7 Major Structures of a Bacteria Cell
* Capsule
* Cell wall
* Ribosomes
* Nucleoid
* Flagella
* Pilli
* Cytoplasm

Capsule
* Keeps the cell from drying out and helps it stick to food or other cells. Cell wall
* Thick outer covering that maintains the overall shape of the bacterial cell. Ribosomes
* Cell part where proteins are made.
* Ribosomes give the cytoplasm of bacteria a granular appearance in electron micrographs. Nucleoid
* A ring made up of DNA.
Flagella
* A whip-like tail that some bacteria have for locomotion. Pilli
* Hollow hair-like structures made of protein.
* Allows bacteria to attach to other cells.
* Pilli-singular
* Pillus-plural

Cytoplasm
* Clear jelly-like material that makes up most of the cell.

Reproduction
Prokaryotes have a single circular chromosome attached to the inside of the plasma membrane. Asexual - Binary Fission
* Prokaryotes reproduce by simply splitting in two.
* The DNA is copied and the cell divides...
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