Insulin and Tca Cycle

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Ketones in insulin resistant state

1. How is glucose normally maintained in the post absorptive state? 2. Why is muscle glycogen not useful for blood glucose
3. Why may this situation have evolved
4. Under what circumstances do you think substantial gluconeogenesis will occur 5. What is necessary for the production of ketones
6. What will reduce acetyl CoA oxidation
7. When is oxaloacetate availability impaired
8. When is the regulation of gluconeogenesis disrupted
Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis are reciprocally regulated by eachother. What promotes the activity of one inhibits the other.

Lack of insulin leads to high levels of glucose in the blood, gluc levels exceed renal threshold.. this causes excess water to excreted in urine (polyuria) Ketones are formed when there is not enough sugar or glucose to supply the body’s fuel needs. This occurs overnight, and during dieting or fasting. During these periods, insulin levels are low, but glucagon and epinephrine levels are relatively normal. This combination of low insulin, and relatively normal glucagon and epinephrine levels causes fat to be released from the fat cells. The fats travel through the blood circulation to reach the liver where they are processed into ketone units. The ketone units then circulate back into the blood stream and are picked up by the muscle and other tissues to fuel your body’s metabolism. In a person without diabetes, ketone production is the body’s normal adaptation to starvation. Blood sugar levels never get too high, because the production is regulated by just the right balance of insulin, glucagon and other hormones.However, in an individual with diabetes, dangerous and life-threatening levels of ketones can develop. When there is not enough insulin, the fat cells keep releasing fat into the circulation, and the liver keeps making more and more ketones and ketoacids. The rising ketoacid levels make the blood pH too low (acidotic/Diabetic...
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