Cellular respiration is an ATP-producing catabolic process in which the ultimate electron acceptor is an inorganic molecule, such as oxygen. It is the release of energy from organic compounds by metabolic chemical oxidation in the mitochondria within each cell. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats can all be metabolized as fuel, but cellular respiration is most often described as the oxidation of glucose, as follows: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + 686 kilocalories of energy/mole of glucose oxidized Cellular respiration involves glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. Glycolysis is a catabolic pathway that occurs in the cytosol and partially oxidizes glucose into twopyruvate (3-C). The Krebs cycle is also a catabolic pathway that occurs in the mitochondrial matrix and completes glucose oxidation by breaking down apyruvate derivative (Acetyl-CoA) into carbon dioxide. These two cycles both produce a small amount of ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation and NADH by transferring electrons from substrate to NAD+ (Krebs cycle also produces FADH2 by transferring electrons to FAD). The electron transport chain is located at the inner membrane of the mitochondrion, accepts energized electrons from reduced coenzymes that are harvested during glycolysis and Krebs cycle, and couples this exergonic slide of electrons to ATP synthesis or oxidative phosphorylation. This process produces 90% of the ATP. Cells respond to changing metabolic needs by controlling reaction rates. Anabolic pathways are switched off when their products are in ample supply. The most common mechanism of control is feedback inhibition. Catabolic pathways, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, are controlled by regulating enzyme activity at strategic points. A key control point of catabolism is the third step of glycolysis, which is catalyzed by an allosteric enzyme, phosphofructokinase. The ratio of ATP to ADP and AMP reflects the energy status of the cell, and phosphofructokinase is sensitive to changes in this ratio. Citrate and ATP are allosteric inhibitors of phosphofructokinase, so when their concentration rise, the enzyme slows glycolysis. As the rate of glycolysis slows, the Krebs cycle also slows since the supply of Acetyl-CoA is reduced. This synchronizes the rates of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. ADP and AMP are allosteric activators for phosphofructokinase, so when their concentrations relative to ATP rise, the enzyme speeds up glycolysis, which speeds of the Krebs cycle. Cellular respiration is measure in three manners: the consumption of O2 (how many moles of O2 are consumed in cellular respiration?), production of CO2 (how many moles of CO2 are produced in cellular respiration?), and the release of energy during cellular respiration. PV = nRT is the formula for the inert gas law, where P is the pressure of the gas, V is the volume of the gas, n is the number of molecules of gas, R is the gas constant, and T is the temperature of the gas in degrees K. This law implies several important things about gases. If temperature and pressure are kept constant then the volume of the gas is directly proportional to the number of molecules of the gas. If the temperature and volume remain constant, then the pressure of the gas changes in direct proportion to the number of molecules of gas. If the number of gas molecules and the temperature remain constant, then the pressure is inversely proportional to the volume. If the temperature changes and the number of gas molecules is kept constant, then either pressure or volume or both will change in direct proportion to the temperature.
The respirometer with only germinating peas will consume the largest amount of oxygen and will convert the largest amount of CO2 into K2CO3 than the respirometers with beads and dry peas and with beads alone. The temperature of the water baths directly effects the rate of oxygen consumption by the contents...