RESEARCH APPROACH

BY: MOHD TAJUDIN B JAMALUDIN

Contents

Definition

Methods

Inductive teaching

deductive teaching

Examples of inductive & deductive

Advantages

Disadvantages

Conclusion

Definition

INDUCTIVE:

Inductive teaching (also called discovery teaching or

inquiry teaching) is based on the claim that

knowledge is build primarily from a learner’s

experiences and interactions with phenomena.

Definition

DEDUCTIVE

Deductive teaching (also called direct instruction) is

much less “constructively” and is based on the idea

that a highly structured presentation of content

creates optimal learning for students.

Research Methods

In research, we often refer to the two broad methods of

reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches.

Research Types

Deductive

Approach

Inductive

Approach

Inductive Research Approach

THEORY

TENTATIVE

HYPOTHESIS

Hill

Climbing

PATTERN

Observations

• Inductive reasoning works

the other way, moving

from specific observations

to broader generalizations

and theories.

• Informally,, we sometimes

call this a "bottom up“

approach

• Conclusion is likely based

on premises.

• Involves a degree off

uncertainty

Deductive Research Approach

Deductive reasoning

works from the more

general to the more

specific.

Sometimes this is

informally called a

"top-down“

approach.

Conclusion follows

logically from

premises (available

facts)

THEORY

HYPOTHESIS

Waterfall

OBSERVATIO

N

CONFIRMATI

ON

Inductive teaching

An instructor using an inductive approach begins by

exposing students to a concrete instance, or

instances, of a concept .

The teacher’s role is to create the opportunities and

the context in which students can successfully make

the appropriate generalizations, and to guide

students necessary.

Deductive Teaching

. The instructor

using a deductive approach

typically presents a general concept by first

defining it and then providing examples or

illustrations that demonstrate the idea.

Students are given opportunities to practice, with

instructor guidance and feed back.

Example of Inductive Teaching

Using the grammar situation,

the teacher would present the

students with a variety of

examples for a given concept without giving any

introduction about how the concept is used. As students

see how the concept is used, it is hoped that they will

notice how the concept is to be used and determine the

grammar rule. As a conclusion to the activity, the teacher

can ask the students to explain the grammar rule as a final

check that they understand the concept.

Example of Deductive Teaching

A deductive approach to

instruction is a more

teacher-centered approach.

This means that the teacher

gives the students a new concept, explains it, and

then has the students practice using the concept. For

example, when teaching a new grammar concept, the

teacher will introduce the concept, explain the rules

related to its use, and finally the students will

practice using the concept in a variety of different

ways.

Advantages

Inductive

Students may draw approaches

Inductive approach can increase the creativity

Inductive approach showed better long-term

retention ability

Meet the challenges of the new world

Advantages

Deductive

Some educators have suggested that deductive

teaching can be critically important for students with

learning disabilities

Some learn best through a deductive approach.

Deductive learners like to have the general principles

identified

Disadvantages

INDUCTIVE:

. Students may draw

other meaning from the

examples

The inductive approach may also take more time

and be less “efficient” then a deductive approach

certain ideas do not lend themselves easily to an

inductive-teaching

Disadvantages

DEDUCTIVE

It doesn’t allow for...