Inductive & Deductive Research Approach

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INDUCTIVE & DEDUCTIVE
RESEARCH APPROACH
BY: MOHD TAJUDIN B JAMALUDIN

Contents
 Definition
 Methods

 Inductive teaching
 deductive teaching
 Examples of inductive & deductive
 Advantages
 Disadvantages
 Conclusion

Definition
 INDUCTIVE:

Inductive teaching (also called discovery teaching or
inquiry teaching) is based on the claim that
knowledge is build primarily from a learner’s
experiences and interactions with phenomena.

Definition
 DEDUCTIVE

Deductive teaching (also called direct instruction) is
much less “constructively” and is based on the idea
that a highly structured presentation of content
creates optimal learning for students.

Research Methods
In research, we often refer to the two broad methods of
reasoning as the deductive and inductive approaches.

Research Types

Deductive
Approach

Inductive
Approach

Inductive Research Approach
THEORY

TENTATIVE
HYPOTHESIS

Hill
Climbing

PATTERN

Observations

• Inductive reasoning works

the other way, moving
from specific observations
to broader generalizations
and theories.
• Informally,, we sometimes
call this a "bottom up“
approach
• Conclusion is likely based
on premises.
• Involves a degree off
uncertainty

Deductive Research Approach
 Deductive reasoning

works from the more
general to the more
specific.
 Sometimes this is
informally called a
"top-down“
approach.
 Conclusion follows
logically from
premises (available
facts)

THEORY

HYPOTHESIS
Waterfall
OBSERVATIO
N

CONFIRMATI
ON

Inductive teaching
 An instructor using an inductive approach begins by

exposing students to a concrete instance, or
instances, of a concept .
 The teacher’s role is to create the opportunities and
the context in which students can successfully make
the appropriate generalizations, and to guide
students necessary.

Deductive Teaching
 . The instructor

using a deductive approach
typically presents a general concept by first
defining it and then providing examples or
illustrations that demonstrate the idea.
 Students are given opportunities to practice, with
instructor guidance and feed back.

Example of Inductive Teaching
Using the grammar situation,
the teacher would present the
students with a variety of
examples for a given concept without giving any
introduction about how the concept is used. As students
see how the concept is used, it is hoped that they will
notice how the concept is to be used and determine the
grammar rule. As a conclusion to the activity, the teacher
can ask the students to explain the grammar rule as a final
check that they understand the concept.

Example of Deductive Teaching
A deductive approach to
instruction is a more
teacher-centered approach.
This means that the teacher
gives the students a new concept, explains it, and
then has the students practice using the concept. For
example, when teaching a new grammar concept, the
teacher will introduce the concept, explain the rules
related to its use, and finally the students will
practice using the concept in a variety of different
ways.

Advantages
 Inductive
 Students may draw approaches
 Inductive approach can increase the creativity
 Inductive approach showed better long-term

retention ability
 Meet the challenges of the new world

Advantages
 Deductive
 Some educators have suggested that deductive

teaching can be critically important for students with
learning disabilities
 Some learn best through a deductive approach.
 Deductive learners like to have the general principles
identified

Disadvantages
 INDUCTIVE:
 . Students may draw

other meaning from the

examples
 The inductive approach may also take more time
and be less “efficient” then a deductive approach
 certain ideas do not lend themselves easily to an
inductive-teaching

Disadvantages
 DEDUCTIVE
 It doesn’t allow for...
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