History Midterm Notes

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Early Modern Period:
Uniform and powerful Church (the Catholic Church) -> rise of heretics (those who believed something other than what the Church believed), and religious fragmentation Feudal society -> states

Feudalism= a defficult concept
Feodum -> fief
Lords have sovereignty over an area
Kings still fight to achieve control over land and countries Social upheaval

The Early Modern World (500-1300)
1) Crisis of the Western Church also known as the Great Schism 2) Hundred Years’ War
3) Great Plague or Black Death

Orders if medieval society:
Those who Prayed
Those who fought
Those who worked

1305: Clement V elected pope (friends of King Philip IV of France): came together to elect a new pope
problem with where the pope chose to live
because of the relationship with the King of France the pope lived in Avignon instead of Rome the pope was then under French control so French cardinals ruled the catholic church In 1377 the pope then moved to Rome but wanted to move back to Avignon because of the conditions

Avignon Papacy (1309-1378):

* The Great Schism (1378-1417)
* Avignon and Rome both thought that they had the right to elect a new pope so for about 40 years no one knew which pope was the correct pope * Which pope received the income from sales benefices? * Who was to choose a new bishop?

* Which pope had the power to execute Christians?
* -------------------------------------------------

*
* Hundred Years’ War
War between France and England.
The war was fought because of English land claims
English and French monarchs are all being challenged with questions of hereditary rights to rule Edward III of England claims the thrown of France 1328
Was also a potential heir to the throne due to his mother, Isabella Many families in Europe are interrelated and therefore it is not uncommon for claims to rule over other countries.

The Law of the Salina Franks:
Only direct male heirs (through the male side) could inherit the throne From the 6th century
Changed recently, whatever child is born first takes the throne

The French chose Philip VI of Valois as their King
Was chosen over King Edward III of England

This irritated the English who felt their rule over the French was the strongest background: France fragmented
Divided in countries and duchies
Not uncommon for nobles to own land in their own countries
Eg. 1066: William Count of Normandy becomes King of England BUT also the Duke of Normandy with a relief in France

1330’s England still owns land in France and Germany

1337-1453 (116 years)
series of battles interrupted by plague by rebellions in two countries, by truces and peace agreements -------------------------------------------------
France is richer and more populated, at least on one occasion the French managed

*

Italian City-States
-> Economic Influences
-> Their rise and decline
Ottoman Empire
Artistic Achievements
New views of learning

Renaissance
Re-birth
Starts with Ancient Greece and Rome, Middle ages, Renaissance The renaissance period

Petrarch (1304-74)
Father of humanism
Collected Latin manuscripts
Wrote in Italian
Empathizes the capacity of humans
Spent his youth in Avignon
Known for having travelled a lot, out of curiosity
People didn’t travel during his period…first tourist
During the travels he collected Latin manuscripts
First person to use “Dark Ages”
He wrote letters to famous people
He wrote to Boccaccio

Giovani Boccaccio (1312-75)
Decameron
You can repent and regret your sins or enjoy your life
The books tells a story of 10 young people who fled Lawrence to the country side, these one hundred stories make up the Decameron They make fun of the church and the priests
New outlook on the church and lack of faith, but they still believed in God

Renaissance:
Italian and urban

Holy Roman Empire
Italy has some of the biggest cities in Europe...
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