History 170 Study Guide

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L. A. Douglas History 170 Study Guide # 1

When, from where, and how did the first humans arrive in North America? - The ancestors or bearers of the Native Americans
What impact did the arrival of humans have on America?
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What was maize and how did it impact Native American culture? - Within several thousand years farmers in Central America had developed maize that resembled modern corn. - The leafy stalk produces ears, which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable or starch. The Olmec and Mayans cultivated it in numerous varieties throughout central and southern Mexico, cooked, ground or processed through nixtamalization. Between 1700 and 1250 BCE, the crop spread through much of the Americas. The region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. After European contact with the Americas in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, explorers and traders carried maize back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. Did all Native Americans speak the same language?

- No, at least 250 different languages before Columbus came to America What cultural differences existed between Native American groups? -

What similarities, if any, did they have with European civilization? - Had empires
Who were the first Europeans in America?
- Vikings (– almost 500 years before Columbus.
- Sagas: wrote their stuff down on stones
- Vikings going west settlement in Eastern Canada 1000A.D. led by Leif Eriksson established 1st European colony in America called Vinland – Didn’t last, eternal disagreements, couldn’t get along with Native Americans.) Into what period of European history was Columbus born?

- In the Renaissance (rebirth) period. (Born in Italy in 1450) What was Columbus’ purpose in making his 1492 voyage?
- Columbus discovers America to figure out a trade route to the Far East. (- He was a mapmaker. Italians has been conducting trades with the far East but the route Marco Polo found was partly water, partly land and it took a long time and dangerous oriental goods was expensive for Europeans to buy i.e.: silks, spices, woven carpets, paper (Chinese invention), gun powder (Chinese invention) - Expansion of Turkish empire was going to cut off the trade route from the far East to Europe - Portugal try to figure out how to get to the far East.)

Who is America named for?
- Amerigo Vespucci. (German mapmakers decided to name America after people) Who were the conquistadors and what did they do?
- Explorers/Soldiers (conquerors) were Spaniards who subjugated (conquered) the native peoples of North and South America during the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Why did they do it?

- To get gold and Christianize Indians.
How did they do it?
- As the Spaniards began to arrive in the Americas, they claimed territory for Spain. They obtained this land by conquering the Aztecs in Mexico, the Mayas in southern Mexico and in Central America, and the Incas in western South America. The native peoples, who traveled on foot and defended themselves with spears and knives, were no match for the conquistadors, who rode on horseback and were armed with guns. What was the Treaty of Tordesillas?

- Negotiated by the pope in 1494, this treaty resolved the territorial claims of Spain and Portugal; in the Western Hemisphere Portugal was granted Brazil, while Spain was granted nearly all of the remaining lands. What did Spain get in America?

- Gold and Silver.
What effect did Spain’s colonization of America have on the balance of power in Europe? - Made them the strongest and richest country in the world.
How did America and Europe affect each other?
- Got the attention of the Europeans especially the English
Who was John Cabot?
- Was an Italian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery of parts of North America, appointed by King Henry VII to explore the New World is commonly held to have been the first European...
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