The effect of radiation to the production and growth of corn (Zea mays) w studied by irradiating the corn kernels with different doses (0, 10, 30, and 50 kilorad) of gamma rays. Ten kernels of corn was planted for each doses starting with the control one up to the 50 kilo rad. Each day it was observed, measured, and count the corn plants that grow and died. During the first day of observation, there are six corn plant that grow in the control, 10, and 30, and there is no plant that grow in the 50 dose, while during the last day of observation the number of plant grow decreases in 30 and 10 doses. Thus, as the dose of kilorad increases the least possible of the plant to grow and more mutations is happening to that plant.
Mutations can happen to all organism: human, plants, animals, even the bacteria, and also with the microbes. Mutations can be good or bad, it depends on what type of mutations happens to that organism. Mutations can happen anytime or anywhere. It can be control or occur naturally.
According to M.S. Mendioro, R.P. Laude, A.A. Barrion, M.G.Q. Diaz, J.C. Mendoza, and D.A. Ramirez (2010), Mutations are changes in the genetic material that are heritable and essentially permanent. Mutations either may be spontaneous, or induced by physical or chemical agents. Mutations, in general, are classified as either chromosomal mutations or gene mutations.
Induced mutation is mostly use by plant breeders to produce crops that has desirable traits, like resistant to diseases and insects. And to increase genetic variation of different species. Induced mutation can occur in different ways, like exposing the organism in a radiation, or by using chemical agents. Treatment using a radiation can induce point mutations (changes in a single nucleotide) or deletions (loss of a chromosomal segment).
Corn is a grain domesticated by people during the ancient times. The plant has two types of flowers: staminate or the male flower, and the pistillate or the female flower. The staminate flower can be finding mostly in the upper part of the plant, while the pistillate flower can be find below the staminate flower. Corn is a plant that has a rapid growth rate, an annual plant, and commercial available, that is why it was used in this experiment.
Many experiments about mutating the corn were done by the plant breeders to increase its yield and production. However, this experiment is about induction of mutation of the corn by irradiating its kernels in different doses of gamma radiation. The hypothesis for the experiment is, the greater the amount gamma radiation is irradiated into the kernels, the lesser the number of plant will grow, and the lower the amount of gamma radiation is irradiated into the kernels, the more the plant will grow.
The experiment aims to determine the effect of induced mutation by radiating gamma radiation in the production of corn plant. The specific objectives were: 1.
To describe the effect of gamma radiation to the production of corn plant 2.
To describe the effect of gamma radiation to the growth of corn plant. 3.
To know if the number of corn plant in each doses remains the same as time goes by.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In this experiment, 40 corn kernels were used, 10 corn kernels was irradiated in each doses (control, 10, 30, and 50 kilorad). Small plot was used for the planting the kernel. Four hills were made, it is where the seeds were planted. The seeds were planted 5cm apart on a hill, each hill represents a specific doses. The hills were labeled accordingly. Seed germination were noted. The plants were observed for three months, and all the morphological observations of the vegetative parts and fruit were recorded. Each day different groups of students were observing.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Number of Corn Plants that Grow
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