This handout is based on the
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, 2010.
Your professor may prefer a different edition.
While Library staff have made every effort to avoid errors in this document, we strongly encourage students to verify this information with the publication manual itself or with your professor.
The Library, Durham College & UOIT
Revised July 2011
(includes APA’s additional corrections)
APA, 6th edition. Your professor may prefer different formatting – please follow his/her guidelines.
W hen writing a research paper, lab report or any other type of academic assignment, you will likely use resources such as books, articles and websites written by other people to support your argument. However, when using someone else’s information, you must indicate where that information came from (credit must be given where credit is due). If you fail to acknowledge your sources, you are guilty of plagiarism. Plagiarism is a serious offence which may lead to lost marks or a failing grade. There are many different formats for providing credit (also known as bibliographic citation) to other sources within your research paper. This handout provides a brief summary of the APA style guidelines as outlined in the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010). The examples presented illustrate the more common types of bibliographic citation. Please note that this handout should only be used as a guide. For complete information and additional examples consult the Library’s copy of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
PLEASE CHECK WITH YOUR INSTRUCTOR FOR ANY ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS THAT MAY DIFFER FROM THOSE OUTLINED BY THE APA GUIDELINES, 2010 EDITION. YOUR PROFESSOR MAY PREFER TO USE A DIFFERENT EDITION OF THE APA GUIDELINES.
When to cite
Before examining the specific formats of the APA citation style (which are explained in detail in the following pages), it is important to understand when to cite to prevent plagiarism. A source must be cited or acknowledged when you:
quote material verbatim (word for word)
reword or paraphrase materials
include statistics or findings from a survey or study
incorporate facts, ideas or opinions that are not common knowledge
W hen you summarize a concept that is not common knowledge, you must cite your source. It is not necessary to cite information that is widely known by your audience – such as: “milk is a good source of calcium” or “good oral care prevents tooth decay”.
Listed below are a few examples to illustrate when citations are required. Assume that you have been given an assignment on the impact of working part-time on high school students and you decide to use an article written by Gisele Carriere entitled “Weekly work hours and health-related behaviours in full-time students” from Health Reports, June 2005, volume 16, number 4, pages 11 to 22.
Here is a passage taken directly from page 13 of the above-mentioned article: In 2003, an estimated 63% of full-time high-school students aged 15 to 17 had worked for pay in part- or full-time jobs in the past 12 months (Table 1). The older teens in this group were more likely to work, as were those from households with higher incomes or in rural areas.
APA, 6th edition. Your professor may prefer different formatting – please follow his/her guidelines. Example 1
Citation is required if you use a direct quote from a source in your paper. Note that a page number is required when using quotes.
Many high schools students to have part-time jobs, particularly those from “households with higher incomes or in rural areas” (Carriere, 2005, p. 13).
If your quotation is 40 words or more, use a freestanding block of text without the quotation marks. The block quotation should start on a new line and...