Guide to Harvard Style Refrencing

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Chapter 1
What Is Organizational Behaviour?
Key Terms:
Managers| Individuals who achieve goals through other people| Organization| A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals| Planning| Defining goals, establishing strategy and developing plans to coordinate activities| Organizing| Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made| Leading| Motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communications channels and resolving conflicts| Controlling| Monitoring activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations| Organizational Behaviour| OB. A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness| Systematic Study| Looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence| Evidence-Based Management| EBM. Basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence| Intuition| A gut feeling not necessarily supported by research| Contingency Variables| Situational factors: Variables that moderate the relationship between two or more other variables (x leads to y, under condition specified in z, z is contingency)| Workforce Diversity| Organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation and inclusion of other diverse groups| Hindsight Bias| The tendency for people with outcome knowledge to believe falsely that they would have predicted the reported outcome of an event. After learning of the occurrence of an event, people tend to exaggerate the extent to which they had foreseen the likelihood of its occurrence| Positive Organizational Scholarship| Positive OB. An area of OB research that concerns how organizations develop human strength, foster vitality and resilience and unlock potential| Ethical Dilemmas| Situations in which individuals are required to define right and wrong conduct| Model| An abstraction of reality. A simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon| Dependent Variable| A response that is affected by an independent variable, this is what you want to explain. See below for the primary dependent variables| Productivity| A performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency| Effectiveness| Achievement of goals|

Efficiency| The ratio of effective output to the input required to achieve it| Absenteeism| The failure to report to work|
Turnover| Voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization| Deviant Workplace Behaviour| Voluntary behaviour that violates significant organizational norms and, in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members| Organizational Citizenship Behaviour| OCB. Discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization| Job Satisfaction| A positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics| Independent Variable| The presumed cause of some change in a dependent variable. There are individual-, group- and organization system-level variables|

Managers perform four management functions: planning, organizing, leading and controlling

According to Henry Mintzberg, managers perform 10 roles:
Interpersonal| |
Figurehead| Symbolic head, required to perform a number of routine duties of a social or legal nature| Leader| Hiring, training, motivating and disciplining employees| Liaison| Maintains a network of outside contact who provide favours...
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