Grammar Final

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Grammar Final: Study Guide

Noun: A person, place, or thing (or an idea or activity)

Common Nouns – general, not specific, not capitalized
Proper Nouns – specific, capitalized
Gerund Nouns – a verb that, having added, ‘ing’ is a noun
i.e running: a noun, but ‘to run’ is a verb

EXAMPLE SENTENCES
The boy is in love.
boy: common noun, functioning as the subject of the sentence love: common noun

Skipping through Central Park is energizing.
Skipping: gerund noun, functioning as the subject of the sentence Central Park: proper noun

Watching the movie made me feel sick.
Watching: gerund noun, functioning as the subject of the sentence movie: common noun

*When using a gerund, use the possessive pronoun
i.e His running is amazing.
His: possessive pronoun
running: gerund

Note: all months are capitalized
all languages are capitalized
Note: all months are capitalized
all languages are capitalized

Verbals: When a verb functions as another part of speech

Participle: Starts out as a verb --- adjective (with ‘ing)
Gerund: Starts out as a verb --- noun (with ‘ing’)
Infinitive: to + verb (verbs that have not been conjugated)

EXAMPLE SENTENCES
The starving beggar asked for food.
starving: participle, verb functioning as an adjective describing beggar Running was the man’s favorite exercise.
running: gerund, verb functioning as a common noun

The boy loved to dance.
to dance: infinitive

Adjectives: Words that modify nouns and pronouns, “descriptive words”

Articles – a, an, the
Participle - Starts out as a verb --- adjective (with ‘ing)
Common adjective – normal adjective describing a noun or pronoun
Proper adjective – a word that modifies a noun or pronoun but is also a Proper Noun
Number – a number modifying a noun or pronoun

EXAMPLE SENTENCES
Annabel found shiny pennies.
Annabel: proper noun, functioning as the subject of the sentence shiny: common adjective, describing/modifying ‘pennies’

The girl ate an apple.
The: article, functioning as an adjective
an: article, functioning as an adjective

Ingrid tripped over the sleeping beggar.
sleeping: participle, functioning as an adjective, describing/modifying ‘beggar’

I walk to English class.
English: describes/modifies class, proper noun

I had one cookie.
one: adjective (number) modifying cookie

Verbs: The part of speech that expresses existence, action, or occurrence
functions as the simple predicate in a sentence

Action verb
Helping verb
State of being verb
Linking verb

Adverbs: Words that modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. The word answers the questions how, when, why, under what circumstances, and to what extent.

List of words that look like adverbs but are NOT:
friendly lonely neighborly
lovely motherly
deadly fatherly
List of words that look like adverbs but are NOT:
friendly lonely neighborly
lovely motherly
deadly fatherly

Phrase: a group of words (group meaning two or more)

Prepositions:
in to
by for
from with
over under
among towards
beneath around
through above
below across
behind beside

Prepositional Phrase: beginning with a preposition, and then ending with a noun that functions as the object of the preposition

EXAMPLE SENTENCES:
In the store
In: preposition
the: article, functioning as an adjective
store: common noun, functioning as the object of the preposition

By the river
By: preposition
the: article, functioning as an adjective
river: common noun, functioning as the object of the preposition

Conjunctions: A word that connects two parts of speech or two sentences

Coordinating conjunctions –
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (F.A.N.B.O.Y.S)
Subordination conjunctions –
although, as if, as, as though, after*,...
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