Skin grafting is often used to treat skin loss due to a wound, burn, infection, or surgery. In the case of damaged skin, it is removed, and new skin is grafted in its place. Skin grafting can reduce the course of treatment and hospitalization needed, and can also improve function and appearance. The technique of skin harvesting and transplantation was initially described approximately 2500-3000 years ago with the Hindu Tilemaker Caste, in which skin grafting was used to reconstruct noses that were amputated as a means of judicial punishment. More modern uses of skin grafting were described in the mid-to-late 19th century, including Reverdin's use of the pinch graft in 1869 ; Ollier's and Thiersch's uses of the split-thickness graft in 1872 and 1886, respectively ; and Wolfe's and Krause's use of the full-thickness graft in 1875 and 1893, respectively. Today, skin grafting is commonly used in dermatologic surgery.
A bone graft is a procedure where missing bones are replaced to repair bone fractures that pose significant health risk to the patient or that doesn’t heal properly. There are different types of bone grafting such as Autograft, Allografts, Synthetic variants, Xenografts, Alloplastic grafts and Growth Factors. A surgeon makes a cut over the bone defect. The bone graft is shaped and inserted into and around the area. The bone graft can be held in place with pins, plates, or screws. Stitches are used to close the wound. A splint or cast is usually used to prevent injury or movement while healing. Much research is in progress to design bone graft substitutes, chemicals, and devices that stimulate the bones to fuse. It is well known that electrical current stimulates bone to grow. Many surgeons use electrical stimulation devices during the first weeks of surgery to speed up a fusion. Some artificial bone graft materials have been developed. For instance, sea coral, harvested from oceans, is...