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1.1Overview of the African Continent

Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent with about 30.2 million square kilometers (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers six percent of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4 percent of the total land area. With 1.0 billion people (as of 2009), it accounts for about 14.72% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagoes. It has 54 fully recognized sovereign states, 9 territories and three de facto states with limited recognition (Wikipedia, Free Encyclopedia: Africa).

The continent's hydrology is dominated by the Nile River in the north, the Niger River in the west, and the Congo River in central Africa. Less than one-tenth of the land area is arable, while nearly one-fourth is forested or wooded. The peoples of Africa probably speak more languages than those of any other continent. Arabic is predominant from Egypt to Mauritania and in Sudan. Northern Africans speak a family of languages known as Afro-Asiatic. The vast majority of sub-Saharan peoples speak Bantu languages of the Niger-Congo family, while smaller numbers in central Africa speak Nilo-Saharan languages and in southern Africa Khoisan languages. Peoples of European descent are found in mostly in the south; Dutch (Boer) migrations began in the 17th century, and the English first settled in what is now Kenya and Zimbabwe in the 19th century.

Africa as a whole is a developing region. Agriculture is the key sector of the economy in most countries. Diamond and gold mining are important in the south, while petroleum and natural gas are produced in the west. Despite these abundant resources, yet Africa suffers from high levels of political corruption, which distorts policy making and government resource allocation. Inter-communal violence and competition has damaged economies in some nations, and human capital levels, such as education, remain low, negatively affecting productivity.

1.2Definition of Globalisation

Etymologically, the term globalization is derived from the word globalize, which refers to the emergence of an international network of social and economic systems. One of the earliest known usages of the term as the noun was in 1930 in a publication entitled Towards New Education where it denoted a holistic view of human experience in education. A related term, corporate giants, was coined by Charles Taze Russell in 1897 to refer to the largely national trusts and other large enterprises of the time. By the 1960s, both terms began to be used as synonyms by economists and other social scientists. It then reached the mainstream press in the later half of the 1980s. Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and interpretations, with antecedents dating back to the great movements of trade and empire across Asia and the Indian Ocean from the 15th century onwards. Due to the complexity of the concept, research projects, articles, and discussions often remain focused on a single aspect of globalization.

Nsibambi, Apolo (2001) defines globalization as a process of advancement and increase in interaction among the world’s countries and peoples facilitated by progressive technological changes in locomotion, communication, political and military power, knowledge and skills, as well as interfacing of cultural and value systems and practices. Nsibambi adds that globalization is not a value-free, innocent, self determining process rather it is an international socio-politico-economic and cultural permeation process facilitated by policies of governments, private corporations, international agencies and...
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