Global Commerce World History Notes

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In the notes, be sure to define and explain the significance of the following key terms: trading post empire – the empire the Portuguese created in the Indian Ocean by obtaining bases through attacking small and weak states, no naval force in Asia was able to match the Portuguese guns or maneuverability * The Portuguese wanted control over commerce in the Indian Ocean and did so with force * Only able to control half the spice trade, could not sell their goods because they were not desired by Asian markets -> resorted to selling service of shipping goods African diaspora – The transatlantic spread of African people * Introduced elements of African culture such as religious ideas, musical and artistic traditions, and cuisine Answer the following chapter questions:

1. What drove European involvement in the world of Asian commerce (think back as well to your Napoleon’s Button’s readings)?

* Desire for tropical spices – cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, cloves, and pepper – because they were used as condiments and preservatives and sometimes regarded as aphrodisiacs * Desire for products such as Chinese silk, Indian cotton, rhubarb for medicine, emeralds, rubies, sapphires * The pop. of Europe’s monarchs was recovering after the Black Death, learning how to tax more effectively, and learning how to build stronger military forces with gunpowder weapons * As cities grew, they became centers of international commerce, leading to a more capitalist economy based on market exchange, private ownership, and accumulation of capital * Problems with goods coming for East through the Middle East * Egypt was the primary point of transfer of goods from East into the Mediterranean, Venetians resented the Muslim monopoly of Indian Ocean trade * Europeans disliked relying on Venice

* Europeans required to pay gold and silver, which were the only materials wanted by the East * No Asian navy was able to match that of the Portuguese
* They lacked the arms and onboard cannons
* Europeans’ military advantage enabled the Portuguese to establish fortified bases at several key locations in the Indian Ocean world

2. Compare/contrast Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and British initiatives in Asia Portuguese| Spanish| Dutch| British|
Wanted control over the spice trade| Outright colonial rule of the islands, not a trading empire| Wanted control over the shipping and production of cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, and mace| Focused on Indian textiles| Used superior naval technology| Small-scale military operations, gunpowder weapons, local alliances, gifts to chiefs, and the pageantry of Catholic ritual| Highly urbanized and commercialized society -> militarily and economically stronger than Portuguese| Were no match for the Mughal Empire, secured trading bases with payments and bribes| Conquered small, wealthy states – Mombasa, Hormuz, Malacca, Macao| Established themselves on Philippine Islands, a small and militarily weak society| Focused on the islands of Indonesia| Established three major trading settlements in India| Conquered with cruelty| Bloodless takeover| Seized control of a number of small spice-producing islands with much bloodshed| | Portuguese king titled himself “Lord of the Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce” | Named Philippine Islands after King Phillip II, discovered by Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese sailor sailing for the Spanish crown| British and Dutch East India Companies received charters from governments granting them monopolies, power to make war, and govern conquered peoples| British and Dutch East India Companies received charters from governments granting them monopolies, power to make war, and govern conquered peoples| Required merchant vessels to purchase a cartaz, pass, and pay 6-10% of their profit as duties| Pop. forced to relocate to more concentrated Christian communitiesTribute, taxes, and unpaid labor became common| Forced...
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