1. What drove European involvement in the world of Asian commerce (think back as well to your Napoleon’s Button’s readings)?
* Desire for tropical spices – cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, cloves, and pepper – because they were used as condiments and preservatives and sometimes regarded as aphrodisiacs * Desire for products such as Chinese silk, Indian cotton, rhubarb for medicine, emeralds, rubies, sapphires * The pop. of Europe’s monarchs was recovering after the Black Death, learning how to tax more effectively, and learning how to build stronger military forces with gunpowder weapons * As cities grew, they became centers of international commerce, leading to a more capitalist economy based on market exchange, private ownership, and accumulation of capital * Problems with goods coming for East through the Middle East * Egypt was the primary point of transfer of goods from East into the Mediterranean, Venetians resented the Muslim monopoly of Indian Ocean trade * Europeans disliked relying on Venice
* Europeans required to pay gold and silver, which were the only materials wanted by the East * No Asian navy was able to match that of the Portuguese
* They lacked the arms and onboard cannons
* Europeans’ military advantage enabled the Portuguese to establish fortified bases at several key locations in the Indian Ocean world
2. Compare/contrast Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and British initiatives in Asia Portuguese| Spanish| Dutch| British|
Wanted control over the spice trade| Outright colonial rule of the islands, not a trading empire| Wanted control over the shipping and production of cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, and mace| Focused on Indian textiles| Used superior naval technology| Small-scale military operations, gunpowder weapons, local alliances, gifts to chiefs, and the pageantry of Catholic ritual| Highly urbanized and commercialized society -> militarily and economically stronger than Portuguese| Were no match for the Mughal Empire, secured trading bases with payments and bribes| Conquered small, wealthy states – Mombasa, Hormuz, Malacca, Macao| Established themselves on Philippine Islands, a small and militarily weak society| Focused on the islands of Indonesia| Established three major trading settlements in India| Conquered with cruelty| Bloodless takeover| Seized control of a number of small spice-producing islands with much bloodshed| | Portuguese king titled himself “Lord of the Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce” | Named Philippine Islands after King Phillip II, discovered by Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese sailor sailing for the Spanish crown| British and Dutch East India Companies received charters from governments granting them monopolies, power to make war, and govern conquered peoples| British and Dutch East India Companies received charters from governments granting them monopolies, power to make war, and govern conquered peoples| Required merchant vessels to purchase a cartaz, pass, and pay 6-10% of their profit as duties| Pop. forced to relocate to more concentrated Christian communitiesTribute, taxes, and unpaid labor became common| Forced...