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European Colonies in Asia

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European Colonies in Asia

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EUROPEAN COLONIES IN ASIA

BRITISH EMPIRE IN ASIA
The British Empire comprised the colonies, protectorates, and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. •At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. •At the peak of its power it was often said that "the sun never sets on the British Empire" because its span across the globe ensured that the sun was always shining on at least one of its numerous territories.

BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY
The East India Company traded mainly in cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, saltpeter, tea and opium. •The Company created trading posts in Surat, Madras, Bombay, Calcutta, and Bengal. •From its base in India, the Company had also been engaged in an increasingly profitable opium export trade to China since the 1730s. •In 1839, the confiscation by the Chinese authorities at Canton of 20,000 chests of opium led Britain to attack China in the First Opium War, and resulted in the seizure by Britain of Hong Kong Island, at that time a minor settlement. •The East India Company has had a long lasting impact on the Indian Subcontinent; it stimulated the growth of the British Empire.

DUTCH EMPIRE IN ASIA

The Dutch followed Portugal and Spain in establishing an overseas colonial empire. For this, they were aided by their skills in shipping and trade and the surge of nationalism accompanying the struggle for independence from Spain. •The Dutch found what they were looking for in Jakarta, conquered by Jan Coen in 1619. •It was later named Batavia and became the capital of the Dutch East Indies. •Meanwhile, the Dutch continued to drive out the Portuguese from their bases in Asia. Malacca finally succumbed in 1641 (after a second attempt to capture it), Colombo, and Ceylon. •Goa, the capital of the Portuguese Empire in the East, was unsuccessfully attacked by the Dutch but they gained the right to trade with Japan. •The Dutch took...