Geology Exam 3

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Geology Test 3

What type of metamorphism is caused by high temperature and high pressure imposed over a large volume of crust? Regional

What are the local rocks under our feet called?
Caliche

A rock is hydrothermally altered by burial. If the rock is buried to 3 km deep and the local geothermal gradient is 25 degrees Celsius per km, then how hot is the rock? 75 degrees Celsius

Which of following minerals will dissolve completely during weathering? Calcite

Marble forms when one of the following rocks is metamorphosed? Limestone

In which of the following sedimentary rocks would it be easiest to determine the type of rocks from which the sediment was derived? Conglomerates

Which of the following radioactive isotopes is the most useful for dating very young wood and charcoal? Radiocarbon

The prograde part of a metamorphic P-T path occurs during _________________. Burial and heating

Someone brings a piece of wood from Noah’s Arc and asks you to date the Arc. What is the correct method to use? With dendrochronology

What type of metamorphism is caused by igneous intrusions?
Contact

Which of the following minerals would be most concentrated at a site containing heavily weathered sediments? Quartz

The earliest estimate of the earth’s age was based on?
Inferences made from the Bible

The diagonal layers are called?
Cross-beds
Assuming the sand dune was deposited by wind currents, which way was the wind blowing? ------------------

Which of the following sedimentary rocks would be classified as bioclastics? Limestone

Turbidity currents generate:
Graded bedding

Which of the following lists is written in order of increasing particle size? Siltstone, sandstone, conglomerates

Which of the following dating methods is not based on annual layering? Lichenometry

A radioactive has decayed to the point that 1/8 of the original content is left? How many half-lives have passed? 3

What are the basic steps of lithification (in the correct order)? Compaction, cementation, recrystallization

In what type of environment did the ripples depicted above most likely form? Beach (waves)

Which of the following rocks is likely to have a texture referred to as gneissic? Gneiss

A break-through in our attempts to accurately date the earth came when: Radioactivity was discovered

A metamorphism is most widespread along which kind of plate boundary? Convergent

Dendrochronology is a dating method that is based on:
Tree rings

Rocks ultimately weather because:
Their minerals are unstable at surface conditions

Geology uses two types of dating:
Relative dating and absolute dating

As one approaches the source of a particular sedimentary layer the: The grains become more grounded

Bonus: what kinds of structures were mostly damaged in the natural phenomena that was shown in the video during class? Bridges

Foliation is caused by:
Lithostatic pressure

Which group of minerals will only form as a result of weathering? Clays

Which of the following regions is most likely to be dominated by mechanical weathering? Polar regions

A rock formed with 1000 atoms of a radioactive element, but contains only 250 radioactive parent atoms today. How many how many half-lives have passed since the rock formed? Two

Which of the following is a general pressure in all directions, such as the pressure that the atmosphere exerts? Confining pressure

Who formulated the four “principles of uniformity”?
Charles Lyell

Which of the following is the type of weathering that does not involve expansion? Dissolution

How long does it take to deposit a 3 meter thick layer of deep-sea sediment if the sedimentation rate is 3 mm per year? (1 m=100 cm, 1 cm = 10 mm). 1000 years

A radioactive isotope decays down by 2 half lives? How many daughter atoms will have formed assuming that you had one to start with and started with 100 parent atoms? 75

The main types of weathering are:
Mechanical...
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