Gph 111 Final Study Guide

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A lateral fault is one that is not vertical
Earthquakes occur at the plate boundaries
Anticlines/synclines are associated with folding
Hawaiian volcanoes are shield volcanoes (no explosivity, etc.) Collymer joints are formed by magma crystallizing…

What is the earth made of?
Sediments can form from pre existing rocks, they collect and undergo a process called lithification, then form layered rocks The crust of the earth is largely covered up with sedimentary rocks When sedimentary rocks melt they become magma.

Magma can undergo crystallization, forming igneous rocks (intrusive or extrusive) The igneous rocks may encounter rain and start to break apart and become sediments. Metamorphic rocks are formed by igneous or sedimentary rocks Granite is a: intrusive igneous rock

Limestone is a layered sedimentary rock
Shale: ?
Sedimentary rocks can be layered with sandstone, limestone, and shale: The oldest are on the bottom When exposed to heat and pressure, rocks become metamorphic
Cortsite is a metamorphic form of sandstone
Slate is the metamorphic form of shale
Marble is the metamorphic form of limestone
Pummus comes from volcanic eruptions

Coal is a sedimentary rock
How do layers “fold”?

Submergence is:
Where does a stream flow the fastest? In the middle at the top Curved streams have a slower speed on the outside of the curve and faster speed on the inside part. Deposition occurs on the inside part of the stream. Causes the stream to become more curvy. Q = AV --- The discharge is equal to the velocity times the cross-sectional area Slide about urbanization of streams?

A divide is a line that separates drainage bases
Big one: continental divide

An alluvial fan is a depositional feature, and a fluvial feature Horton’s Laws of stream networks/orders
As the stream order increases, the number of streams decreases Stream length increases as the stream order increases
Drainage area gets bigger as the stream order increases
Oxbow lakes are...
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