Final Outline for Community Health

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Chapter 1
Introduction
Factors of Community Health
* Physical factors – industrial development, community size, environment, geography * Social and cultural factors – beliefs, traditions, and prejudices; economics; politics; religion; socioeconomic status; social norms * Community organization – identify problem, mobilize resources, work toward change * Individual behaviors – takes the concerted effort of many—if not most—to improve community health Chapter 2

Organizations under the DHHS
* Administration on Aging (AoA)– Designated to carry out the provisions of the Older Americans Act of 1965 * Administration for Children and Families (ACF)– Responsible for providing direction and leadership for all federal programs for needy children and families (administers Head Start program) * Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)– Lead federal agency for research on health care quality, costs, outcomes, and patient safety * Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)– created by Superfund legislation; serves public to prevent harmful exposures and diseases related to toxic substances * Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)– The nation’s premiere health promotion, prevention, and preparedness agency and global leader in public health * Food and Drug Administration (FDA)– Responsible for protecting the public health by assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation * Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)– Administers the Medicare (elderly & certain disabilities) & Medicaid (poor) programs which provide health care coverage to about 87 million Americans * Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)– Helps provide health resources for medically underserved populations; works to build the health care workforce * Indian Health Services (IHS)– Has the goal to raise physical, mental, social, and spiritual health of American Indians and Alaskan Natives to the highest level * Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)– Ensures up-to-date information and state-of-the-art practice is effectively used for the prevention and treatment of addictive and mental disorders * National Institutes of Health (NIH)–

* One of the world’s foremost medical research centers and the federal focal point for medical research in the U.S. * Examples: National Cancer Institute (NCI); National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI); National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) Quasi-governmental Agencies:

* American Red Cross, National Academy of Science
Non-governmental Agencies:
* Funded by private donations or, in some cases, membership fees * Free from governmental interference as long as they meet IRS guidelines * Many types: voluntary, professional, social, philanthropic, service, religious, & corporate Voluntary health agencies:

* Created to meet a specific health need
* Basic objectives: research, education, services, advocacy * Funded by donations; fundraising events
* Examples: ACS, AHA, ALA – big three (American cancer society, American heart association, American lung association) Other non-governmental agencies:
* Professional Health Organizations/Associations
* Purpose: Promote high standards of professional practice for their specific profession * Examples: American Public Health Association, American Medical Association, American Nursing Association, Society for Public Health Education * Philanthropic Foundations

* Provide grants to support programs
* Example: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Chapter 3
Epidemiology
Population Health:
* Years of potential life lost (YPLL)– number of years lost when death occurs before age 65 or 75 * Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)– measure of...
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