The purpose of this chapter is to explain how to use various tools to select the best candidates for the job. The main topics we’ll cover include selection, testing, background and reference checks, ethical and legal questions, types of tests, and work samples and simulations.
By the time we finish this chapter, I’ll be able to:
I. Explain what is meant by reliability and validity.
II. Explain how you would go about validating a test.
III. Cite and illustrate our testing guidelines.
IV. Give examples of some of the ethical and legal considerations in testing.
In addition, I will be able to:
V. List eight tests you could use for employee selection, and how you would use them. VI. Give two examples of work sample/simulation tests.
VII. Give examples of some of the ethical and legal considerations in testing. -------------------------------------------------
Why Careful Selection is Important?
Careful selection is important for three main reasons: performance, costs, and legal obligations.
* First, your own performance always depends on your subordinates.
* Second, it is important because it’s costly to recruit and hire employees. As the opening story in this chapter indicated, Google’s hiring process was streamlined due to the amount of time taken for interviews. Time spent by employees equates to the costs of not being productive in their jobs.
* Third, it’s important because mismanaging hiring has legal consequences.
Person-job fit refers to identifying the knowledge, skills, abilities (KSAs), and competencies that are central to performing the job. Then we must match the KSAs to the prospective employee’s knowledge, skills, abilities, and competencies.
I. Explain what is meant by reliability and validity
Basic Testing Concepts
A test is basically a sample of a person’s behaviour. Using a test (or any selection tool) assumes the tool is both reliable and valid.
A reliable test is one that yields consistent scores when a person takes two alternate forms of the test or takes the same test on two or more different occasions.
Validity tells you whether the test is measuring what you think it’s supposed to be measuring. Now, let’s discuss three types of validity.
* Criterion validity involves demonstrating statistically there is a relationship between scores on a selection procedure and the job performance of a sample of workers. It means showing that workers who do well on the job also do well on the test.
* Content validity shows that the content of a selection procedure is representative of important aspects of performance on the job.
* Constructs represent an underlying human trait or characteristic such as honesty. Construct validity demonstrates that a selection procedure measures a construct and that the construct is important for successful job performance.
Reliability = Consistency
Validity = Measuring what you intend to measure
Measuring reliability generally involves comparing two measures that assess the same thing. It is typical to judge a test’s reliability in terms of a correlation coefficient (in this case, a reliability coefficient). Such a coefficient shows the degree to which the two measures (say, a test score one day and a test score the next day) are related.
A selection test must be valid. Without proof of validity, there is no logical or legally permissible reason to continue using it to screen job applicants. Remember that a valid test is one that measures what you intend to measure. A typing test, for example, clearly would be a valid test of keyboarding skills.
II. How to go about validating a test
Evidence-Based HR: How to Validate a Test
* First, analyze the job and write job descriptions and job specifications. Your goal is to specify the human traits and skills (predictors) you believe...