2. Development of Microbiology as a Scientific Discipline 1.1 History i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Credit – 2 Early observation of microorganisms Spontaneous generation conflict : Contribution of scientists Recognition of the microbial role in diseases. Koch’s postulates Recognition of microbial role in fermentations. Discovery of microbial effects on organic and inorganic matter. Pure culture concept.
vii) Aseptic surgery General characteristics of microorganisms. 2.1 i) ii) iii) iv) General principles ( Bacteria ) Taxonomic rank Classification system Numerical taxonomy Major characteristics of used in taxonomy. Metabolic, Morphological, Etiological. Physiological, Compositions Immunological, proteins,
composition of nucleic acids,
hybridization, nucleic acid sequencing, identification of organisms based on 16srRNA sequencing, 16S rDNA sequencing v) Bergey’s manual of systematic Bacteriology,General characteristics enlisting all parts with major characters & examples. ( Vol I to IV) 2.2 General characteristics and classification of Viruses.(LHT system) 2.3 General characters of Fungi ( including yeasts ) 2.4 General characters of Actinomycetes
2.5 General characters of Algae 2.6 General characteristics of Mycoplasma and Rickettssia. 2.7 General characteristics of Archaebacteria 2.8 Introduction to Gnotobiology/ axenic life/ space microbiology. Credit – 3 : 3.1 Microscopy 3.1 Properties of light i) ii) iii) iv) v) Definitions : Magnification, resolving power, depth of focus, focal length, numerical aperture. Objectives Low , high & oil immersion. Oculars : function, Huygenian, Ramsden, Hyperplane & compensating. Condensers ; Abbe, variable focus cordiod, parabolic & their functions. Iris diaphragm. comparative study of : i) ii) i) ii) iii) iv) Comound Microscope Electron Microscope – SEM, TEM Phase contrast microscope. Dark field microscope. Fluorescent microscope. Advanced applications of microscopes. 3.2 Principles, construction using ray diagram, application and
3.3 Principles, ray diagram & applications.
Semester – I Paper II
Credit – I i)
.General Microbiology I
Stains and dyes. Definition : stain, dye, chromogen, chromophore, auxochrome, acidic and basic stains, simple and differential staining. (Gram’s and Acid fast staining ) , natural stains, mordant, decolourizer, counter stains. ii) iii) iv) i) ii) Physicochemical basis of staining. Fixatives and fixation of smears. Staining of Fungi. Properties of a good culture medium. Definition, concept, use and types of different culture media . Synthetic, non synthetic, natural, selective, differential, enriched , enrichment, assay, minimal, maintenance, and transport media. iv) v) Role of Buffers in culture media. Media used for cultivation of bacteria , fungi, actinomycetes, yeasts, algae and photosynthetic bacteria. ( at least two )
Cultivation of microorganisms.
Credit – II
Cultivation of anaerobes i) Principle and examples. ii) Methods ( at least 2 ) Pure culture techniques i) Development of pure culture ii) Sterilization, aseptic techniques, streak, pour and spread plate methods, single cell isolation. iii) Significance Control of Microbial Growth i) Pattern of Microbial death – concepts. ii) Sterilization by physical methods - High temperature, canning and pasteurization. - Low temperature. - Non ionizing and ionizing radiations. - Bacteriological filters. iii) Sterilization by chemical means; Disinfectants and antiseptics:
iv) v) .
Effectiveness, mode of action & application. Phenolics, alcohols, halogens, heavy metals, ammonium compounds, aldehydes. Sterilization using gases sulfur dioxide, ethylene oxide, Beta propiolactone.
Control of microorganisms using sugars, nitrates, organic acids .