Indian Judiciary is the continuation of the British Legal system established by the English in the mid-19th century based on a typical hybrid legal system in which customs, precedents and legislative law have validity of law. Constitution of India is the supreme authority of the country.
There are various levels of judiciary in India — different types of courts have different styles of judges. They also form a strict hierarchy of importance, in line with the order of the courts in which they sit, with Supreme Court of India at the top, followed by High Courts of respective states with district judges sitting in District Courts and Magistrates of Second Class and Civil Judge (Junior Division) at the bottom. It hears all prosecutions and civil disputes, including disputes between individuals and the government. Members of the Indian judiciary are independent of the executive and legislative branches of government.
The Supreme Court
The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. According to the Constitution of India, the role of the Supreme Court is that of a federal court and guardian of the Constitution.
Articles 124 to 147 of the Constitution of India lay down the composition and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India. The Supreme Court is meant to be the last resort and highest appellate court which takes up appeals against judgments of the High Courts of the states and territories.
Also,disputes between states or petitions involving a serious infringement of fundamental and human rights are usually brought directly to the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court of India held its inaugural sitting on 28 January 1950, and since then has delivered more than 24,000 reported judgments.
The Supreme Court has original, appellate and advisory jurisdiction under Articles 32, 131–144 of the Constitution.
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