Criminal Law

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# 2001 University of South Africa All rights reserved Revised edition 1997 Further Further Further Further Further revised revised revised revised revised edition edition edition edition edition 1999 2001 2003 2005 2008

Printed and published by the University of South Africa Muckleneuk, Pretoria CRW101U/1/2009±2011 98293788 3B2

Cover illustration: ``The third of May 1808'' by Francisco de Goya (1746±1828).

CRW-style

III

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ± LITERATURE AND METHODS OF STUDY .......................................................... v 1 Introductory topics ............................................................................................................ Background ............................................................................................................................................ Theories of punishment ....................................................................................................................... Study hints ............................................................................................................................................. History of South African criminal law .............................................................................................. The sources of our criminal law ........................................................................................................ The onus of proof in criminal cases .................................................................................................. Criminal liability: a summary ............................................................................................................ Crimes and delicts ................................................................................................................................

1
2 2 10 11 12 12 13 17

2 The principle of legality .................................................................................................... 3 The act .............................................................................................................................. Background ............................................................................................................................................ Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... The Act ................................................................................................................................................... Omissions ...............................................................................................................................................

20 33
34 34 34 40

4 The definitional elements and causation .......................................................................... Background ............................................................................................................................................ The definitional elements .................................................................................................................... Causation ...............................................................................................................................................

49
50 50 51

5 Unlawfulness I .................................................................................................................. Background ............................................................................................................................................ The meaning of ``unlawfulness'' ........................................................................................................ Private defence ......................................................................................................................................

65
66 66 69

6 Unlawfulness II...
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