Cognitive Models: Theories

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1. McLaughlin’s Attention – Processing Mode
2. Implicit and Explicit model
3. Long’s Interaction Hypothesis

1. McLaughlin’s Attention – Processing Mode
Types of learning:
a) Controlled processing -> typical of anyone learning a branch of new skill in which only a very few elements of the skill can be retained b) Automatic processes -> refer to processing in a more accomplished skill – our branch can manage hundreds and thousands of bits of information simultaneously

a) Focal attention – focus on something centrally
b) Peripheral attention – on the periphery
c) Both may be conscious (e.g. driving a car)
d) Many controlled processes are focal
e) Many automatic processes are peripheral
f) In virtually every act of performing something they (???)

Controlled – new skill, capacity, limited
Automatic – well trained and practiced skill, capacity is relatively unlimited (Information about this can be found in Brown: “Principles and techniques...”)

Table from principles and techniques – Children are learning only particular skills from box C and D, adults are moving. (taken form “Practical applications of McLaughlin’s attention process”)

2. Implicit and Explicit model
a) Implicit – knowledge is infinitive that is automatically and spontaneously used in language tasks. b) Explicit – in the explicit category are those facts that a person knows about language and the ability to articulate those facts in some way Children do not posses abstract thinking until the age of 11.So children are taught up until 11 and in implicit way (-> it’s hidden, way of thinking, learning) through games, songs and so on.

3. Long’s Interaction Hypothesis
Previous theories – focus to a considerable extent to on the learner The social constructivist perspectives (associated with the more current approach) emphasize Context is important in which the learner’s requires the language

QUESTION: How can one...
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