Cip Notes

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Realist view:
* “self-help” system: states must help themselves
* States will seek to maximize power over morality or material interests * International institutions do not matter; only states matter in war and peace- life d death * Power is:
* The aim of political struggle
* Defines the interests of states
* A motivation that is constant throughout human history * Assumptions:
* Human nature is bad, assume leaders will act in self * Anarchy: no world government, no hierarchical force on states * Great powers will violate international system/law if they can gain what is in their self-interest * Rationality: a calculation of costs and benefits; states will pay the cost if the benefit outweighs the cost * Survival is a goal

* Does not make assumptions about non-state actors
* Offensive realist: the best way to preserve power is to be the most powerful, states seek primacy of power * Defensive realist: states want to survive most of all; constantly striving for power will make you weaker

Realism vs Idealism:

Morgenthau: (classical realism- human nature is corrupt)
* Human nature brings “a limitless lust for power,” a need for control in pursuit of power, it is a source of difficulties * The concept of power is the control of man over man and can change as history changes * Political power is the main source of power

* Political realism= interests in terms of power
* First image best explains the reoccurrence of war
* Moral principles are not considered in state action: survival is above all morals * Conflict is the result of opposing interests in pursuit of power for survival

Waltz: (Opposing Morgenthau)
* Power is a means of survival
* Uses 3 images to explain war and peace
* First: human nature
* Second: internal organization of the state
* Third: international system
* The third image explains the...
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