Chemistry Igcse- Batteries

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  • Topic: Rechargeable battery, Battery, Energy density
  • Pages : 2 (261 words )
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  • Published : December 2, 2012
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BATTERIES

What is a battery?
A battery is a container consisting of one or more cells carrying an electric charge and used as a source of power. SECONDARY BATTERIES
* rechargeable
* high cost (short-term) low cost (long-term)
* used in objects with high energy requirements:
e.g. mobile phones, power tools
* require special handling, containment & disposal

* limited interchangeability
* long life time
* produce smaller amount of waste (flat discharge curve) * high energy efficiency
* used in situations where charging is practical

* lower energy density: part of battery space used in design to accommodate re-charging * lower initial voltage
* may not always be readily operational, must be charged
* low internal resistance
* Materials used:
* nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH)
* high specific energy
* fewer toxic metals than (NiCd)
* used in medical instruments
* lithium-manganese (LiMN2O4)
* high charge & discharge current
* low specific energy
* short-medium length service life
* used in power tools
Batteries are divided into two categories:
PRIMARY BATTERIES
* non-rechargeable
* low cost (short-term) high cost (long-term)
* used in objects with low energy requirements:
e.g. hearing aids, watches, remote controls
* do not require special handling, containment &
disposal
* higher level of interchangeability
* short life time
* produce larger amount of waste (sloping discharge
curve)
* low energy efficiency
* used in situations where recharging is impractical:
e.g. forest-fire services
* higher energy density

* higher initial voltage
* readily operational

* high internal resistance
* Materials used:
* lithium iron disulfide (Li-FeS2)
* high capacity
* low internal resistance
* low performance temperature...
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