Chapter 16 Transformations in Europe 1500-1750
Culture and Ideas
Renaissance (European): A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a “revert” of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the -mid-14TH to mid-15TH century, and a Northern (Transalpine) Renaissance, from roughly the early 15th to early 17th century Papacy: The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head. Indulgence: The forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the Catholic Church authorities as a reward for a pious act. Marin Luther’s protest against the sale of indulgences is often seen as touching off the Protestant Reformation. Protestant Reformation: Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the “protesters” forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England. In the 1500’s the Latin Church’s central government, or papacy, was gaining money and power, yet at the same time it was suffering from corruption. Due to Europe’s prosperity, larger donations, and heavier taxes, the Pope was able to undertake large and grand building techniques. Pope Leo the 10th was especially known for this, creating the Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome. During this time period, a German Monk challenged the Pope on the issue of indulgences. An indulgence is a pardon or forgiveness, granted by the church for past sins. You could gain this forgiveness from doing something “pleasing” to the church, such as going on a pilgrimage or paying large sums of money to the Church. Martian Luther challenged this practice saying that forgiveness did not come from “doing certain things” but rather from “religious faith”. This disagreement soon sparked a large theological debate, which eventually led to the Protestant Reformation. The “Lutherans” maintained the view that salvation only came from Jesus Christ and that the Bible and Christian traditions made up the belief system in Christianity, not the Pope’s decisions. The Lutherans gained large amounts of support from the Germans due to the printing press, which helped to spread Lutheran ideas. John Calvin was an influential French Protestant leader who wrote the book: The Institutes of the Christian Religion. He maintained the views of the Protestants, however he had a different view of how salvation was gained. He believed that salvation was too great for man to gain, and that salvation only came to those who predetermined by god. He also believed in a self-governing congregation, and stressed simplicity in all aspects of Christian traditions. His followers became known as Calvinists.
The Counter Reformation and the Politics of Religion
Catholic Reformation: Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline. All of the Christian reforms that took place in Europe during this time period were partially motivated by social agendas. One example of this is the fact that the Protestant faith appealed largely to the German-speaking population. The effectiveness of the Protestant Reforms led to reforms within the Catholic Church itself, called the Catholic Reformation. This reformation was brought about when a Catholic Church council met in Trent from 1545 to 1563. They met in order to separate the documents and traditions of the Catholic Church from the Protestants, and in the process the put into effect several new reforms. The first reinforced the authority of the Pope, which had degraded over time due to the corruption in the Church. The Jesuits were also very important to this process. The Jesuits, otherwise known as the Society of Jesus helped to stop the massive tide of followers flowing to the Protestant side; they did so by serving as missionaries and...
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