AP World History
September 15, 2012
Chapter 14 Outline
Every year or al least once in their life, the Muslims must travel to Mecca. This is a holy pilgrim that has been a tradition for the Muslims since Muhammad made the trip. At the beginning the pilgrims to Mecca were made by small amounts of people. However, by the ninth century, thousands of people traveled to Mecca in the 9th lunar month. All these people survived on food and water provided by the government. The Muslim government made a great effort to keep the roads and the cities clean and ready for the travelers. The hajj was not only solemn observance, but it was also an occasion for joy and celebration. The word Islam means “Submission,” which means obedience to the rule of Allah. If somebody accepts the Islamic faith it means that he/she is a Muslim. Even though this belief started with one man, by the end of the eighth century Islam stood alongside the Byzantine Empire. A Prophet and his World:
Islam appeared in the Arabian Peninsula, and this religion reflected the cultural conditions of it’s homeland. Living in Arabia has always been hard because of the bad agriculture and the harsh climates. However people have been able to survive for a long time and they built a strong empire that was based upon family and submission. Arabia figured out the trading opportunities and took advantage of them. Arabia became an important trading center for India china and the Mediterranean. Plus they started receiving commodities. With the awake of classical empires, trade routes became insecure. Merchants abandoned the overland routes and they started using sea routes that passed through the Arabian Peninsula. This greatly influenced the economy of the city of Mecca. Muhammad and His Message:
The prophet Muhammad was son of nomadic Bedouin herders and merchants. He was born in 570 C.E. and he was son of an honorable merchant family. He had an education, and they cared for him. However, when he was young he worked for a wealthy widow that later became his wife. He got some power in the Mecca society, but he didn’t get a high position. By the age 30 Muhammad had established himself as a merchant and he lived a comfortable life. He lived and knew about many other different religions and he knew the cultures of other peoples. According to the stories Muhammad received some messages from the Angel Gabriel which told him to convert his family and the world and to give them the message of god. Muhammad presented oral lessons that he passed to his students and the people. However when he dies, his students compiled his teachings in a book called the Quran. Most important after the Quran itself are traditions known as hadith, which include sayings attributed to Muhammad. Muhammad’s Migration to Medina:
He first began for converting his family and then the community. Muhammad became popular and that brought him problems with the ruling elites of Mecca. Muhammad insisted that Allah was the only god and that there shouldn’t be any other deities to which we pray. The elite also saw him a treat because he said that Allah was going to punish greed. Because of all the danger in Mecca, Muhammad had to fled. He fled and joined a group of his followers in Yathrib, a rival trading city. Muslims called their new city Medina which also means the city of the prophet. In Medina he organized his followers into a community and he provides it with laws and a social code. He looked after the economic welfare of his community; he did this by trading or by launching expedition. Muhammad started to call himself the final prophet because he was going to at last reveal the message of god to the people. He teach that the Christian god and all the other major gods were the same. All of them were Allah and he also accepted the Jewish and Christian prophets. The Establishment of Islam in Arabia:
Even thought they succeeded in Medina,...