Ch. 18 Ways of the World Answers

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bourgeoisie: Term that Karl Marx used to describe the owners of industrial capital; originally meant “townspeople.” British Royal Society: Association of scientists established in England in 1660 that was dedicated to the promotion of “useful knowledge.” Caste War of Yucatán: Long revolutionary struggle (1847–1901) of the Maya people of Mexico against European and mestizo intruders. caudillo: A military strongman who seized control of a government in nineteenth-century Latin America. Crimean War: Major international conflict (1854–1856) in which British and French forces defeated Russia; the defeat prompted reforms within Russia. dependent development: Term used to describe Latin America’s economic growth in the nineteenth century, which was largely financed by foreign capital and dependent on European and North American prosperity and decisions. Díaz, Porfirio: Mexican dictator from 1876 to 1911 who was eventually overthrown in a long and bloody revolution. Duma, the: The elected representative assembly grudgingly created in Russia by Tsar Nicholas II in response to the 1905 revolution. Indian cotton textiles: For much of the eighteenth century, well-made and inexpensive cotton textiles from India flooded Western markets; the competition stimulated the British textile industry to industrialize, which led to the eventual destruction of the Indian textile market both in Europe and in India. Labour Party: British working-class political party established in the 1890s and dedicated to reforms and a peaceful transition to socialism, in time providing a viable alternative to the revolutionary emphasis of Marxism. Latin American export boom: Large-scale increase in Latin American exports (mostly raw materials and foodstuffs) to industrializing countries in the second half of the nineteenth century, made possible by major improvements in shipping; the boom mostly benefited the upper and middle classes. Lenin: Pen name of Russian Bolshevik Vladimir Ulyanov (1870–1924),...
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