It was an important factor in IR after the French revolution. It resulted in german and italian reunification. And contrastingly, led to the dissolution of the turkish empire and demands for independence in the balkans and other east european countries. The notion of being superior than the rest(Britain's white man burden and germany's supremacy of the aryan race) led to tension and conflict and ultimately the race for supremacy. 2. Imperialism
It was the direct outcome of the industrial rev. Each country tried to expand its empire which led to the race for empire building. It failed to limit itself to Asia and Africa and ultimately affected european politics which led to imperial rivalries and prepared grounds for WW1 3.Alliances
•After franco-prussian war,germany sought to keep france weak and remain dominant. Secret alliance with austria-hungary in 1879(dual alliance) against russia, while outwardly league of 3 nations(germany, russia, austria-hungary) was retained. •1881,austria-hungary made alliance with serbia to stop russia from gaining control of serbia. •reinsurance treaty - between germany and russia yet russia was kept in the dark about the dual alliance. •the triple alliance in 1882. Between germany, austria-hungary and italy to prevent italy from supporting russia. Also based on an anti-french front. •Fall of bismarck led to counter alliances.
franco russian alliance in 1894. Russia with france to protect herself from germany and austria-hungary. First step to building the triple alliance. •etente cordiale 1904. Between france and britain. Agreement not formal alliance. •anglo russian etente 1907. Between britain and russia. This created the triple etente or triple alliance of france,britain and russia to counter germany This created two fronts and divided europe into two camps which competed against each other in befriending other nations and building there military arsenal. 4. Militarism
Race for armament began after french revolution. Defeat of napolean led to new arms race again between germany, france,russia, austria-hungary and britain. Japans militarism became threat to china, korea n later russia and usa. Belief in inevitability of war and advocacy of war to become supreme major cause for WW1. 5. Anglo-german naval rivalry
Britain was supreme at sea and was challenged by germany. Britain couldn't accept this. The rivalry culminated in WW1. 6. Absence of international organisation
Concert of europe was informal group of nations aftr napoleans defeat but couldn't control its member and didn't represent the entire free world. The system of pacific settlement of international disputes set up by the hague conference was unsatisfactory. And couldn't contain imperial rivalries. 7. Negative role of the press in creating war psychology despite attempts of governments to normalise their relations. 8. Autrian and serbian rivalry
Austria-hungary wanted access to sea at the cost of slav territories and serbia represented slav nationalism. The two had contradictory aims. This led to a conflict of interest and was encouraged by the russian czar as well building grounds for war. 9. Personal ambitions of leader. Kaiser william II of germany, austra-hungary, russian leaders(czar and his wife). 10. The Sarajevo incident
Annexation of bosnia-herzegovina by austria in 1908, 2 balkan wars, italian annexation of tripolo ,moroccan crisis along with the japanese threat to peace in the background, the assassination of the crown price of austria-hungary, archduke franze ferdinand with his wife in sarajevo june,1914 was a direct cause for WW1.
The results of the great war were almost as numerous as its causes. By the end of the world war in 1918, american president woodrow wilson proposed peace and made a statement of war aims in his famous '14 points' 1.Open covenant of peace,openly arrived at and Abolition of secret diplomacy 2.Absolute freedom of navigation at sea, outside...