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SAC REVISION
Area of Study 4- The Human Resource Function (i)
- Human Resource Management has replaced personnel management, in most large organisations. - Personnel management is a narrower area of management concerned only in recruiting and keeping employment records. - HR Managers contribute to the strategic and operational level, and previous personnel managements have had to take on broader tasks within the organisation, and HR is now a fully integrated function of the organisation. - The role of a human resource manager is to plan, organise, lead and control all matters that relate to the employment of workers. - Human Resource management is linked to productivity as it is directly linked to strategies and objectives of the organisation, as it relates to the ongoing management of the vital resource and asset, which are people. Therefore HRM must ensure that employees achieve goals and objectives within constraints. - Part of meeting organisations objectives is through ensuring that sufficient numbers of motivated and skilled staff are available to work efficiently and effectively, managing their resource to ensure high levels of productivity. - Effective HRM can help a LSO to increase its profits by:

Ensure that wages are appropriate and not too expensive.
Training can be costly, but may provide benefits as employees work more efficiently , increasing productivity and therefore generating greater profit. The recruitment process is costly. So retaining staff who have the required skills and knowledge is essential, this means that HRM needs to implement motivation techniques and family-friendly policies to keep these necessary staff members. - The Contexts of HR:

- HR is affected by developments and trends in four significant contexts; a) Workplace attitudes: The changes in the workplace that could potentially affect HR include the changes in employee’s expectations, more workplace flexibility, greater recognition of workplace-life balance and of human diversity in workplaces. b) Developments in technology: The introduction of new technology could impact HR in areas such as the allocation of new work tasks, training and skill development and changes to the culture of the organisation. c) Legislation: The laws such as OH&S, employee relations (Industrial Relations), and equal employment opportunity (Anti-discrimination), can have an effect on HR. d) Ethical and Socially Responsible Management: Discussed earlier in the text. - Defining HRM:

- HRM is defined as the management of the employment relationship, which is the relationship between the employee and the organisation, it covers the Establishing, Maintaining and Terminating of the employee. - Establishing employment involves the manager or team responsible for HRM in making decisions about and taking action on:

- Planning the organisations human resource needs
- Recruitment of staff
- Selection of staff
- Maintaining employment involves decisions about and taking action on:
- Induction of recruits
- Incentive and motivation
- Training
- Career development
- Terminating employment involves decisions about and taking action on:
- Retirement
- Resignation
- Dismissal
- Redundancy and Retrenchment (laying people off)
- The four indicators to effective HRM in an organisation are: - Good work performance
- Job satisfaction among employees
- Low levels of absenteeism
- Low levels of staff turnover

Area of Study 4- Expectations and Motivation
- HRM sees the staff of an organisation as human beings with human needs that need to be fulfilled, staff are seen as more than just inputs in the production process, HR identifies that all staff has expectations of the job, seek a certain degree of satisfaction, and they need to motivated to perform at their best. - Expectations of an employee include;

- Fair treatment by the employer
- Steady employment
- Good conditions of employment (pay and leave)
- A positive working environment...
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