Botany Durian

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  • Topic: Durian, Flower, Durio
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  • Published : April 23, 2013
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Durian:
Genus: Durio
Family: Malvaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Tribe: Durioneae
Order: Malvales
Subfamily: Helicteroideae

Scientific Classification:
• There are 30 recognized Durio species
• Nine of them produce edible fruit
1. Durio zibethinus
2. Durio dulcis
3. Durio grandiflorus
4. Durio graveolens
5. Durio kutejensis
6. Durio lowianus
7. Durio macrantha
8. Durio oxleyanus
9. Durio testudinarum
• Durio zibethinus is the only species available in the
international market
• Other species are sold in locally

Species Durian:
It is a large-sized tropical fruit tree.
The tree can reach a height of 35 – 45m if grown from seeds. Durian trees that are planted on a smooth level of land are smaller in size (10-15m in height).

Climate:
Climate Condition
• Soil: It grows best in fertile, deep soils with abundant organic matter and a pH of 6-7
• Temperature: 25 -30 C; evenly distributed. The trees may survive occasional changes in temperature as low as 10º C and as high as 46 C.
• Needs tropical warmth, abundant moisture, and sunshine to thrive.

• If coconut can grow and bear well in some climate, except for seaside areas (durians are not salt-tolerant), durians may be possible too.

Soils:
The durian needs Loamy to sandy loamy is the most suitable soil.This soil is mostly found at the slopes of hills. Soil like "bris" soil, sulphuric acid and peaty soil is not suitable for durians.

Roots:
Durian roots have primary taproot
going directly down from the
trunk and secondary roots
growing out from it.

Durian Flowers
• Durian flowers are strongly fragrant and having nectar
• 50-70 mm long and grow in clusters of 1 to 45 individual flowers per cluster
• Flower clusters hang from the main and smaller branches, or directly from the trunk of the tree.
• Period of 3 to 4 weeks of dry weather is needed to stimulate flowering
• It takes about one month for a durian flower to develop from first appearance as a tiny bud to an open blossom.
• Each flower has 5 sepals and 5 petals
• Colour of the flower matches the color of the edible pulp that will develop inside the fruit;
– Yellowish petals produce yellow-fleshed Durians (the most common) – White or Reddish petals will produce white or reddish fleshed Durians.

• Durian flowers are normally open from around 3 p.m. to midnight • Durian flowers are hermaphrodites, each having a stamen and pistil in the same flower.
• Self-pollination rarely happens because the pistil and the stamen do not appear at the same time.
• Durian flowers are primarily pollinated by Bats when they visited flowers for nectar
• No evidence for any durian pollination happens via the wind • It has been demonstrated that durian fruit-set will greatly increase by human hand-pollination
• Usually only 1 or 2 durian fruit develop from each flower cluster

Flowerbud and flower:
The nocturnal durian flower blooms when night falls and is at its peak at midnight. Usually, no pollen can survive until the next morning, so active pollination occurs during the night.

*Bats are pollination agents.

Durian Leaf
• leaves are about 8 - 20 cm long and 2.5-7.5 cm
wide
• Elliptic to oblong in shape
• Upper surface is shiny smooth, light or darkgreen
• Bottom surface is somewhat scaly, sometimes brown but more often with a golden shine. • Leaves are folded at their mid-rib when they first
appear, then stretch out as they mature.

Durian Fruit
• Durian fruits’ Weight commonly ranges from 2-5
kg, up to 8 kg is also possible.
• Thai varieties are generally the largest, as 200
mm long by 175 mm in diameter
• Fruits from Philippines and most other regions are
usually smaller and lighter
• The weight of the fruit and its spiky armor make
a durian grove a hazardous place during
ripening season, unless the fruits have all been
pre-tied with strings or ropes to prevent their fall
to the ground, or large safety nets positioned to
catch them.

Durian...
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