Biology Study Notes

Topics: Cell, Light, Ray Pages: 10 (2290 words) Published: January 2, 2013
Plant and Animal Cells
Prokaryotes: No nucleus or other membrane
Eukaryotes: has a nucleus and other organelles
Plant cells have cell wall and chloroplast while animals cells don’t Organelles
Cytoplasm: suspends organelles in cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum: transports materials throughout the cell Nucleus: stores genetic data and performing mitosis
Mitochondria: converts glucose with oxygen to make energy for cell Cell membrane: support cell and allow diffusion
Chloroplast: absorbs light and converts it to energy
Golgi Bodies: collects and removes materials from cell
Vacuoles: isolating and removing waste in cell and maintaining pressure Mitosis: IPMAT
Chromatid: 2 identical strands of DNA that make up the chromosome Centromere: structure that holds the chromatid together as chromosomes Importance of cell division, as the cell gets bigger, the ratio of surface area and volume decreases, meaning the cell will not be able to have enough space to absorb all the nutrients to go into and support the cell’s organelles and functions Cancer: caused by mutation in cells

Carcinogens: factors that increase the risk of cancer
Benign: tumor that is not harmful
Malignant: tumor that is harmful
Ways of detecting: pap, psa, breast self exam
Treatment: Chemo, Radio, surgery
Stem Cells: Cells that are able to divide into any type of cell by turning on some of the DNA to allow some functions Umbilical cord excellent source for stem cells that can only make blood (specialized stem cells) cells>tissues>organs>organ systems

Organ: obtain O2, get nutrients, make waste, adapt, repair, grow, change Tissues
Epithelial: skin, lining of digestive system
-thinly packed cells
Connective: bone, tendons, blood
-various cells and fibres held together by a single organ
Muscle: muscles, heart, digestive muscles
-expand and contract on demand to create movement
Nervous: brain, nervous system
-long thing cells that convey electric currents to control body Digestive System
Digestive Tract: mouth>esophagus>S intestines>L intestines>rectum>anus -covered in epithelial tissues for smoothness
Goblet cells: produce mucus to protect from acids
Mouth: breaks down food
Esophagus: travels down through smooth muscles: peristalsis Stomach: churns food with enzymes to digest food
Small intestine: smooth muscles bring nutrients into blood vessels Big Intestine: food left to dry
Liver: produces enzymes for digestion
-Gall bladder: produces bile to kill fat
Pancreas: produces insulin to control blood sugars
Circulatory System
Blood, Heart, Blood vessels
-move nutrients, move oxygen, carry waste, temperature, wbc movement Blood
RBC: Erythrocytes: 50% of blood
-contains hemoglobin that transports oxygen throughout body. from marrow WBC: less than 1%, fights infections by S&D methods
-Destroys or asks antibodies to attack them
Platelets: keeps blood from clotting. Ruptures to heal
Plasma: 50% of blood, protein rich fluid to carry cells.
Heart: responsible for pumping blood around body
Cardiac Muscle: only in heart that moves at the same time
Nerve Tissue: controls beating frequency
Connective Tissue: protect heart from friction, collision. made of epithelial tissue Blood Vessels
Arteries: carries blood under high pressure with thick walls Veins: carries blood under low pressure in thin walls. Valves are used to suspend blood Capillaries: cell size width, carries oxygen and diffusion at this level Diseases

Coronary Artery Disease, Heart Attack
Respiratory System
Gas Exchange: gas is transferred through diffusion into blood through capillaries. Diseases: Tuberculosis: bacteria infection
-Cancer: tumor in lung blocking air flow
Musculoskeletal System: supports body and movement, protection Bone: hard dense matrix of Ca, P, and collagen protein. Marrow inside to make blood Ligament: bonds bone to bone. Soft elastic collagen

Cartilage: provides lubrication between disks
Muscle: cells contract in long fibers to provide movement....
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