The Functions of the Main Cell Components

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Cell membrane - encloses the contents of the cell and regulates the flow of substances into and out of the cell.

Mitochondrion - this feature produces a substance called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is the carrier of energy in all cells.

Centriole - these two features made of hollow tubules play a key role in cell division.

Ribosomes - these small, granular features of the cell play a key role in the assembly of proteins.

Chromosome - During cell division, DNA, the genetic material duplicates and forms linked coils called chromosomes.

Endoplasmic reticulum - this organelle helps to transport materials through the cell. Rough reticulum is the site of attachment for ribosomes; smooth reticulum is the site of fat production.

Nucleolus - this is a small structure inside the nucleus that plays an important role in ribosome production.

Nucleus - this is the cells control centre and it mainly contains chromatin, a granular material composed of DNA, the cells genetic material and proteins. The inner nucleus is made up of RNA and proteins. The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear envelope, a two-layered membrane with pores.

Golgi complex - A stack of flattened sacs receives and processes protein that has been dispatched by the endoplasmic reticulum. The proteins are modified and released at the cell membrane.

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There are four main types of tissue: epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous.

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Epithelial tissue is found in skin and in diverse forms has special functions in other areas of the body. The main types are: simple epithelium, a single layer of squamous (flat), cuboidal (cube like), or columnar (tall) cells; stratified epithelium, with two or more layers; pseudostratified epithelium, which looks stratified but has only one layer of columnar cells that have surface hairs (cilia) or secrete mucus; and transitional epithelium, which is multi layered and flexible. [pic]

Connective tissue - the...
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