* a) Know and understand the chemical reactions inside cells are controlled by enzymes. * b) Know and understand during aerobic respiration (respiration that uses oxygen) chemical reactions occur that: * use glucose (a sugar) and oxygen
* release energy.
* c) Know and understand that aerobic respiration takes place continuously in both plants and animals. * d) Know that most of the reactions in aerobic respiration take place inside mitochondria. * e) Know that aerobic respiration is summarised by the equation: * glucose + oxygen ==> carbon dioxide + water (+ energy) * f) Know and understand that energy that is released during respiration is used by the organism. * Know that the energy may be used:
* to build larger molecules from smaller ones,
* in animals, to enable muscles to contract,
* in mammals and birds, to maintain a steady body temperature in colder surroundings. * in plants, to build up sugars, nitrates and other nutrients into amino acids which are then built up into proteins. * g) Know and understand that during exercise a number of changes take place: * the heart rate increases
* the rate and depth of breathing increases.
* h) Know and understand that these changes increase the blood flow to the muscles and so increase the supply of sugar and oxygen and increase the rate of removal of carbon dioxide. * i) Know and understand that muscles store glucose as glycogen, which can then be converted back to glucose for use during exercise.
AQA GCSE Science BIOLOGY Unit B2.6.2 Anaerobic respiration
* a) Know and understand during exercise, if insufficient oxygen is reaching the muscles they use anaerobic respiration to obtain energy. * b) Know and understand anaerobic respiration is the incomplete breakdown of glucose and produces lactic acid. * c) HT only: Know and understand that...