Biology Igcse

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Biology Revision summer 2012
1-Characteristics of living organisms
Nutrition- taking in of nutrients which are organic substances and mineral ions , containing raw materials or energy for growth and tissue repair , absorbing and assimilating them . Excretion- the removal from organisms of toxic material, the waste products of metabolism and substances in excess of requirement . Respiration- the chemical reactions that break down the

Sensitivity- The ability to detect or sense changes in the environment (stimuli) and to make responses. Reproduction- The processes that make more of the same kind of organism. Growth- A permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in the cell number, size or both. Movement- An action by an organism causing a change of position or place.

MRS GREN

2-Classification System
Key words: Binomial, Genus, species, Vertebrate, Fish, Amphibian, Reptile, Bird, Mammal, Virus, Bacteria, Fungi. The five main classes of vertebrates need to be classified by visible, external characteristics only. Fish

Amphibians
Reptiles
Mammals
Birds
The main features of the adaption to the environment of viruses, bacteria and fungi. Main features include the following but are not limited to them. The name of the bacteria should be italic when typed or underlined when hand written.

| Main Features |
Virus | Protein coat. DNA or RNA single stranded genetic material. Spikes. Non-Living. No cell membrane. Capsomere. Multiplication by replication. Relies on living cells. No metabolic pathways. Vulnerable outside of the host. | Bacteria | Bacilli (bacillus .sing), Cocci (coccus sing) and Sprilli (sprillum sing.). 1-2µm in length. Cytoplasm. Glycogen. Slime coat. Cell wall. Cell membrane. Plasmids. DNA (not in nucleus). Flagella. Living. Reproduce by binary fission. Feeding is saprotrophic or parasitical (dead or living organic material) | Fungi | Hyphae. Mycelium. Nucleus. Vacuole. Cytoplasm. Glycogen Granule. Hyphal wall. Asexual reproduction by spores(most fungi) or budding (yeast). Feeding is saprotrophic or parasitical (dead or living material). Decomposers. Cellulase. | http://room114.wikispaces.com/file/view/VirusFlu.JPG/40381400/VirusFlu.JPG

http://www.backyardnature.net/f/rhizopus.gif
http://dbscience1.wikispaces.com/file/view/jasonbacteria.jpg/58526032/jasonbacteria.jpg Binomial naming system:
When writing the binomial name, the first letter of the genus should be in upper case and the first letter of the species should be in lower case. The binomial names are Latin words.

For Example;
Lubricous terrestrius

Genus Species

3- Adaption of organisms
Key words - Monocotyledons, dicotyledons, Arthropods, Insects, Crustaceans, arachnids, Myriapod, Annelids, Nematodes, Molluscs.

Monocots: Dicots:
http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQXExBPqTDJajBeDIjbVVjYTBWIRR3DvO5Ed7X6_IWpoJVlKYFB5whttp://www.google.com/url?source=imglanding&ct=img&q=http://homepage.smc.edu/hodson_kent/plant_growth/Angiosperms/ID/Monocot.jpg&sa=X&ei=F4a6T9vGAsWUswbOh-DUBw&ved=0CAwQ8wc&usg=AFQjCNEIRfyQzySHjo5OphmoNZMah7Lagw

Arthropods: Any of numerous invertebrate animals of the phylum Arthropoda, including the insects, crustaceans, arachnids, and myriapods, that are characterized by a chitinous exoskeleton and a segmented body to which jointed appendages are articulated in pairs.

Insects:
http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRfxs7x-PehPgiRFmyjP1VaabGvsXdNtJzVFfppnVPeuIONFXaQ1A

Arachnids:
http://www.google.com/url?source=imglanding&ct=img&q=http://nz.merial.com/disease_information/dairy/imagefolder/ecto_draw1.gif&sa=X&ei=SYi6T6DZIIzOswa4yqytCA&ved=0CAsQ8wc&usg=AFQjCNHF34RXCvuZoxSG4SgPGc7_W7Tyzg

Crustaceans:...
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