Biology Final

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A. Fermentation Lab- The basic process
Prepared 3 beakers with contents listed below. ( a. Beaker 1: glucose only b. Beaker 2: Starch only c. Beaker 3: Starch + amylase). Poured contents of each beaker into its respective fermentation tube, ensuring the tail portion of the tube was filled with liquid. Placed tubes in an incubator at 37 degrees, measuring distance between tip of tube tail to fluid level at 20, 40, and 60 minute intervals. Calculated gas volume using this distance along with radius of tube tail. o Why is alcohol fermentation needed in yeast to carry out glycolysis In an environment absent of oxygen, yeast undergoes alcohol fermentation in order to continue ATP production but also to recycle NAD+ that is needed for glycolysis. Without this recycling, glycolysis and therefore cellular respiration cannot proceed and organism will die. o How efficient is fermentation- 2% (2 ATP) efficient compared to aerobic respiration, which is 39% (36 ATP) efficient at capturing the energy released in the form of ATP o What amylase does to starch- Breaks down starch to individual glucose units o What gas is produced- CO2

o The experiment
1. How do we take advantage of the gas produced to measure fermentation rates Measure the distance between the top of the tube tail to the fluid level, use this distance to calculate the volume of CO2 gas produced at each timed interval (also using radius of tube tail). 2. What effect is temperature expected to have on this system Enzyme (amylase) works best at its optimal temperature thereby reducing the activation energy, allowing the reaction to go faster. 3. What is the point of performing treatment 2 (starch) versus treatment 3 (starch + amylase) -To determine whether fermentation will happen while sugar is in its complex, polymer form or only once broken down to its monomer units (glucose). Beaker 3 introduces the enzyme that breaks starch down to its monomer units. 4. What are the hypotheses for the 3...
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