Bio 104 Final Review

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Biology Final Review
Chapter 1
Biology unifies much of natural science
* Living systems: most complex chemical systems on Earth
* Constrained by properties of chemistry and physics
* Science is becoming more interdisciplinary (combining multiple fields)

7 characteristics of all living organisms
1. Composed of cells
2. Complex and ordered
3. Respond to their environment
4. Can grow, develop, and reproduce
5. Obtain and use energy
6. Maintain internal balance
7. Allow for evolutionary adaptation

Living systems show hierarchical organization

Each level has emergent properties
* From the interaction of components
* Cannot be deduced by looking at parts themselves
* “life” is an emergent property

Philosophy of science: Karl Popper
* Knowledge: objective
* There is a truth
* Truth exists outside of our perceptions

The nature of science
* A process of knowing
* Understand natural world through observation and reasoning * Begins with observations
* Therefore, much is purely descriptive
* Classification of all life on Earth
* Human genome sequencing
* Both deductive and inductive reasoning
* Deductive: general principles to make specific predictions * Inductive: specific observations to develop general conclusions

Scientific approaches
* Repeated observation of the phenomenon until you get a better and better explanation

* Scientists use systematic approach to understand natural world * Observation
* Hypothesis formation
* Prediction
* Experimentation
* Conclusion
* Hypothesis = a possible explanation for an observation * Must be tested to determine validity
* Often tested many different ways
* Allows for predictions to be made
* Scientific process is iterative (repetitive)
* Hypotheses can be changed and refined with new data * Experiment
* Tests hypothesis
* Must be carefully designed
* Test only one variable at a time
* Consist of a test experiment

Hypotheses should make predictions
* Predictions
* Predictions provide way to test validity of hypotheses * Hypothesis must be rejected if experiment produces results inconsistent with predictions * As more experiments support predictions of a hypothesis, the more valid the hypothesis * Philosophical approaches to science

* Reductionism
* Break a complex process down to its simpler parts * System biology
* Focus on emergent properties that can’t be understood by looking at simpler parts * Models in science
* Simpler representation of complex phenomenon
* It’s a hypothesis
* Good way to organize thought
* Parts come from reductionist approach
* Model shows how they fit together
* Suggests experiments to test model

Scientific theories are a body of interconnected concepts
* Expresses ideas of which we are most certain
* Supported by much experimental evidence and scientific reasoning * NOT= general meaning of “theory”

Unifying themes in biology
1. Cell theory
a. All organisms composed of cells
b. Cells are life’s basic units
c. All cells come from preexisting cells
2. Molecular basis of inheritance
d. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
e. Sequence of 4 nucleotides encode cell’s information f. Gene- discrete unit of information
g. Genome- entire set of DNA instructions
h. Continuity of life depends on faithful copying of DNA into daughter cells 3. Structure and function
i. Study structure to learn function
j. Know a function- look for that structure in other organisms

Examples
i....
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