Representation and Summary of data
[10/09/12]
Histograms
* To be able to draw and interpret histograms.
* Continuous Data:-
* Measured [Rounded off to a particular degree of accuracy] * Time
* Length
* Speed – Velocity
* Mass – Acceleration
* Volume
* Density
* Area
* Most suitable for a histogram.
The area of a histogram is proportional to its frequency.
Area ∞ Frequency Class Width = UCB – LCB Height of each rectangle is called the frequency density: Frequency Density = FrequencyClass Width Stem and Leaf diagrams (S+L) [20/09/12] Stem and Leaf

* Key is essential!
* Display discrete data
* Continuous is ok but round it off to either nearest whole number or 1/2 d.p) * Can be plotted into a box plot
* Can find
* Median (Q₂)
* Range
* Quartiles (Q₁, Q₂, Q₃)
* Inter-quartile Range
* Excludes outliers
* Middle 50% of data
* Percentiles
* Outliers (Extreme values)
* Ordered data
Cumulative Frequency Diagrams [27/09/12] Aims - To complete cumulative frequency curve and step diagrams. - Quartiles using calculation

Cumulative frequency diagrams:
* Data used is usually continuous.
* Sigmoid Curve (N.B. – Capital Sigma = Σ, Lower-case Sigma = ς) * Estimate - Q₁, Q₂, Q₃, P25%, P95%
* Plot points at highest boundary of each class.
* Cumulative Frequency taken from 0≤x≤"n"
* Used for medians, means, inter-quartile range and percentiles. * Grouped data.

* Step cumulative frequency.
* Recognise this graph!
* Allows you to see main differences between the points plotted * Step cumulative frequency.
* Recognise this graph!
* Allows you to see main...

...S1Notes
Monday 16 th January 2012 Mr Aroui
Statistical experiment: A test adopted for collecting data to provide evidence for or against a hypothesis.
Event: A sub-set of possible outcomes of an experiment.
Sample space: A list of all possible outcomes of an experiment.
Discrete data: Discrete data can only take certain values in any given range. Number of cars in a household is an example of discrete data. The values do not have to be whole numbers (e.g. shoe size is discrete).
Continuous Data: Continuous data can take any value in a given range. So a person’s height is continuous since it could be any value within set limits.
Histograms: The key feature of a histogram is that the area of each block is proportional to the frequency.
In order for the area to be equal (or proportional) to the frequency we plot frequency density on the vertical axis, where .
The class width is the width of the interval (i.e. it runs from the lower boundary to the upper boundary).
When question says “give a reason to justify the use of a histogram to represent these data” The answer is “Data is continuous”.
Box-Whisker Diagrams:
Main features & uses of Box Plots:
Indicates max / median / min / upper quartile/ lower quartile.
Indicates outliers.
Illustrates skewness
Allows comparisons
Indicates range / Interquartile range / spread
Mathematical Modelling in Statistics: A mathematical model is a...

...Sample Case Analysis (Case 10.1)
First read the case carefully. In this instance Cregg Hart is interested in knowing if the
rivet diameter from a potential new supplier is the same as the diameter from their existing
supplier. This lends itself naturally to do a confidence interval or suitable confidence level,
say 95% or do a hypothesis test assuming the mean diameters from the two suppliers are
the same.
Next open the Excel file which you can download from CANVAS Excel files and into your
computer completely free of charge and run with it.
What should result from assignment is as follows:
Please Note: students in face-to-face classes should turn in a hard copy with a staple on eth
top left corner. Students in the online sections should email their cases to their online TA.
Name: Jennifer Johnson
Zhao Jin
OIS – 3440 Applications of Business Statistics
Section “00”
Instructor: Professor Tariq Mughal
Case 10.1 Motive Power Company – part 1
Executive Summary
In case 10 .1 Motive Power Company Part 1, manufacturing manager Cregg Hart is approached
by another supplier for rivets. Motive Power is very keen on their quality and are interested in
evaluating the new rivets by comparing them to their existing supplier’s rivets. Specifically this
is done by comparing the diameters of the two groups of rivets.
After collecting data a 95% confidence interval was computed and a statistical test was
performed to determine if the average...

...each other’s magnificence (or darkness at times), but clarity should’ve been present throughout the book to add to its effectiveness. If he distinguished the generations more without intertwining them, the characters would form their own individuality without morphing into each other.
4)
Q: With which character in One Hundred Years of Solitude do you most identify? Why? Is there any character in the novel who is wholly admirable, anyone who is wholly evil?
A: I don’t identify with any of the characters in 100 Years Of Solitude. They’re all extremists and unstable in their own ways, which separates us on a mental and emotional level. I think their transparent innocence, especially in the beginning of the book, is almost impossible to feel in today’s society. On another note, Melquaides proves himself to be the most admirable character. His passionate desire for knowledge, ability to introduce ideas to people, and his honesty in doing so is rare. Not only does he bestow people with the gift of knowledge that comes from outside their isolated town, but he also offers them a chance to exchange items that don’t work for new ones. He generally introduces far-fetched ideas to primitive people without conning them like most gypsies are known to do. He was a Ghandi type character who inspired people to go against what they know to be right. He showed them there’s another way and the world offers more opportunities then they are given....

...Chapter 7 Summarizing and Displaying Measurement Data
Lecture Summary
GOALS FOR CHAPTER 7
1. To illustrate that summarizing important features of a list of numbers provides more information than looking at an unordered list.
2. To explain the concept of the shape of a set of numbers and the vocabulary used to describe shapes, and why it is useful to know something about the shape.
3. To learn the details of how to construct stem-and-leaf plot, histograms and boxplots and how to compute various numerical measures.
4. To discuss what kinds of summaries are best for various kinds of measurements.
Section 7.1 Turning Data into Information
Four kinds of useful information about a set of data: center, variability, shape and outlier
Types of center: mean, median and mode (and their definitions)
Types of variability: range, standard deviation and IQR (and their definitions)
Types of shape: symmetric, skew to the left, skew to the right, unimodal and bimodal (and their definitions)
Definition of outlier (unusual values):
Section 7.2 Picturing Data
Stem-and-leaf plot and how to make a stem-and-leaf plot
Step 1: Create stems
Step 2: Attach leaves
Step 3: Order the leaves
Histogram
Step 1: Divide range of data into intervals.
Step 2: Count how many values fall into each interval. (Create a frequency table)
Step 3: Draw bar over each interval with height = count (or proportion).
Section 7.3 Five Useful Numbers: A Summary
The five number...

...
Chapter 1
The U.S. Business Environment
Questions for Review:
1-4. Why is inflation both good and bad? How does the government try to control it?
Inflation occurs when an economic system experiences widespread price increases. Too much inflation is a bad thing because it means the dollar doesn’t have the same purchasing power it did. Costs of goods rise with inflation, but too much inflation too quickly prevents people from keeping up with the changes in cost. For those who don’t receive income increases quickly enough, inflation reduces the value of the goods those people can buy. For the currently employed, this means they need a salary raise just to keep up with inflation rates for meeting even fixed payments like rent or mortgages. For those on a fixed income, it means having to go without. Slow inflation is a sign of economic growth. When prices are going up, more money is being made, which means more companies need more workers. Reducing the unemployment rate is a sign of a healthy national economy. Slow or moderate inflation is also a good thing because it helps prevent deflation. When prices go down, wages fall, which means that though things might be cheaper, people make less money.
The government tries to control inflation by raising and lowering the interest rates of the nation’s central bank. This had the effect of raising or lowering the relative value of the national currency. It also affected the money available for investment and the running costs of...

...make judgments about what, in the light of your analysis, would be an appropriate source of finance in each case from the variety you have looked at and why this is the most appropriate.
Required Work and Format
Your assignment should be typed and submitted in PDF format (*.pdf) to assignments to be submitted link into the Learning Center by the due date on this assignment brief.
Your assignment should include the following:
1) An assignment cover sheet with your name, course name and code, date submitted, your HND program (if you are not following any HND program then the title of the program you are following at Prague College)
2) Submit as a .pdf document into Moodle
3) Document all the sources, including textbooks and lecture notes using Harvard referencing
4) HND cover sheet.
5) Plan your work to ensure that your assignment meets the TURNITIN requirements of less than 20% originality
Timetable
The assignment covers material discussed during the first 6 classes and it is due on Monday, October 14, 2013. The student is expected to submit the finished assignment through the Prague College Learning Center (PCLC).
Resources
Material discussed in class during the first three weeks of the semester.
Guidelines and Further Information About This Assignment
See attached sheet(s) None
References
Virtual Bank of Biz/ed, viewed on September 17, 2013, http://www.bized.co.uk/virtual/bank/business/finance/sources/ques.htm
...

...CHAPTER 1
CCJ1191 HUMAN BEHAVIOR
Introduction to Criminal Behavior
Criminal Behavior
Intentional behavior that violates a criminal code, intentional in that it did not occur accidentally or without justification or excuse
Vastly complex
No all-encompassing psychological explanation for crime
The Study of Criminal Behavior
Should we restrict ourselves to a legal definition and study only those individuals who have been convicted of behaviors legally defined as crime?
Should we include individuals who indulge in antisocial behaviors but have not been detected by the criminal justice system?
Should we include persons predisposed to be criminal?
Theories of Crime
Provide a general explanation of crime that encompasses and systematically connects many different social, economic and psychological variables to criminal behavior
Supported by well-executed research
Two Theoretical Perspectives on Crime
Classical Theory
Free will
Decision to violate law is choice
Two Theoretical Perspectives on Crime
Positivist Theory
Determinism
Criminal behavior is result of
social
psychological
biological
influences
Perspectives on Human Nature
Conformity Perspective
Humans basically good and want to live up to their potential, influenced by society’s attitudes and values
Strain theory
Crime occurs when there is perceived discrepancy between materialistic values and goals and available means to reach goals
Perspectives on Human Nature
Noncomformist...

...SOVIET MONTAGE
Soviet Montage
The Soviet filmmakers who emerged in the aftermath of the 1917 October
revolution in Russia were part of an artistic avantgarde committed to
innovation and experimentation and the creation of new artistic practices.
Directors Sergei Eisenstein and V. I. Podovkin were part of the formalist
tradition in film history. These Russian directors believed that editing was the
foundation of film art and they set out to shatter the illusionistic storytelling
and seamless continuity cultivated by Classical Hollywood. The pattern of
editing established by Hollywood pioneer D.W. Griffith (1915) in his films The
Birth of A Nation (1915) and Intolerance (1919) taught these filmmakers how
different shots sizes and camera angles could be combined together in the
editing suite with powerful narrative force. The Soviet filmmakers wished to
harness the power of cinema as a tool of education and propaganda and they
therefore wished to go much further than simply entertaining audiences with
spectacle and historical romance.
The medium of film could be used to shock, excite and disturb a cinema audience. In the three films
he made in the 1920s about the revolutionary struggle of the Russian masses – Strike, Battlleship
Potemkin and October Eisenstein pushed the boundaries of this new medium with his radical
approach to film editing (known as montage). In the Odessa Steps sequence of Battlleship Potemkin
(1925), the director created...