Topics: Protein, Cell, DNA Pages: 3 (406 words) Published: February 1, 2015
5 essential characteristics of all living cells:
1. Bounded by a lipid rich plasma membrane
2. Contain nucleic acid that encodes at least one complete copy of a genome a. Originally RNA… these days, exclusively DNA
b. All cells replicate DNA by template directed polymerization into an intermediate form RNA 3. Capable of regulated metabolic activity
a. Through macromolecular catalysis
4. Capable of protein synthesis
a. The machinery of protein synthesis is conserved among all cells (MOSTLY RNA) b. The mechanism of protein synthesis is also conserved
c. Three domain (archae, bacteria, and eucaryotes) evolutionary model emerged from studies of the sequence of non coding RNA (t-RNA & r-RNA) 5. Capable of autonomous relication
Prokaryotes show the greatest biochemical diversity
Animal cell: Dormant Fibroblast ( know structures of cell)
Actin filaments- cell shape and motility
Microtubules- vesicle delivery and mitosis
Intermediate filament- mechanical stability

Eukaryotes sequester DNA into a nuclear compartment
1. Regulates access to DNA
2. DNA replication
3. Transcrription
Endomplasmic reticulum (Rough & Smooth)
1. New membrane
2. Membrane proteins
3. Protein surveillance
4. N-glycosilatin
5. Calcium storage
Golgi complex: Processing and Distribution
1. Glcosylation
2. Protein surveillance packaging and distribution
3. Secretory vesicles
Cytoplasm is a crowded space where most water is bound
Endosomes distribute and recycle material acquired through endocytosis Secretory vesicles process and deliver products to the plasma membrane through exocytosis

Double membrane
Aerobic metabolism
Citric acid cycle
Endosymbiosis Hypothesis is substantial
Similar size
Circular genome
simiar ribosomes
unique t-RNAs
Aerobic metabolism
Endosymbiosis Hypothesis is substantial: Photosynthetic bacterium chloroplast E.coli is the best characterized prokaryote
Easy to grow
Yeast are...
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