Renaissance - A period of intense Artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a "rebirth" of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-40s to mid-15th century, and the Northern Renaissance, from roughly the early 15th to early 17th-century.
Papacy - The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the Pope is the head.
Indulgence - To forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the catholic church authorities as a reward for a pious act. Martin Luther's protest against the sale of indulgence is often seen as touching off the Protestant Reformation.
Protestant Reformation - Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the "protestors" forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England.
Catholic Reformation - Religious reform movement within the last Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. It clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline.
Witch-hunt - The pursuit of people suspected for wichcraft, especially in Northern Europe in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Scientific Revolution - The intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science.
Enlightenment - A philosophical movement in eighteenth century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just scientific as the laws of physics.
Bourgeoisie - In early modern Europe, the class of well-off town dwellers whose wealth came from manufacturing, finance, commerce, and allied professionals.
Joint -stock company- A business, often backed by a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for... [continues]
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