Study Guide for Chapter 34
The Great Depression
And the New Deal,
PART I: Reviewing the Chapter
A.Checklist of Learning Objectives
After mastering this chapter, you should be able to
1.describe the rise of Franklin Roosevelt to the presidency in 1932. 2.Explain how the New Deal’s pursued the “three Rs” of relief, recovery, and reform. 3.Describe the New Deal’s effect on labor and labor organization. 4.Discuss the early new Deal’s efforts to organize business and agriculture in the NRA and the AAA and indicate what replaced those programs after they were declared unconstitutional. 5.Describe the Supreme court’s hostility to many New Deal programs and explain why FDR’s court-packing” plan failed. 6.Explain the political coalition that Roosevelt mobilized on behalf of the New deal and the Democratic Party. 7.Discuss the changes the New Deal underwent in the late thirties and explain the growing opposition to it. 8.Analyze the arguments presented by both critics and defenders of the New Deal.
To build your social science vocabulary, familiarize yourself with the following terms. 1.Dispossessed The economically deprived. “…She …emerged as a champion of the dispossessed….” 2.Rubber-stamp To approve a plan or law quickly or routinely, without examination. “…it was ready to rubber-stamp bills drafted by Whit House advisors….” 3.Blank-check Referring to permission to use an unlimited amount of money or authority. “…Congress gave the president extraordinary blank-check powers….” 4.Foreign exchange The transfer of credits or accounts between the citizens or financial institutions of different nations. “The new law clothed the president with power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange….” 5.Hoarding Secretly storing up quantities of goods or money. “Roosevelt moved swiftly…to protect melting gold reserve and to prevent panicky hoarding.” 6.Boondoggling Engaging in trivial pr useless work; any enterprise characterized by such work. “Tens of thousands or jobless were employed at…make-work tasks, which were dubbed ‘boondoggling.’” 7.Fascist Referring to a political system or philosophy that advocates a mass-based party dictatorship, extreme nationalism, racism, and the glorification of war. “Fear of Long’s becoming a fascist dictator ended….” 8.Parity Equivalence in monetary value under different conditions, specifically in the United States, the price for farm products that would give them the same purchasing power as in the period 1909-1914. “…This agency was to establish ‘parity prices’ for basic commodities.” 9.Holding company A company that owns, and usually controls, the stocks and securities of another company. “New Dealers…. Directed their fire at public utility holding companies….” 10.Collective bargaining Bargaining between an employer and his or her organized work force over hours, wages, and other conditions of employment. ‘The NRA Blue eagles, with their call for collective bargaining, had been a godsend…” 11.Jurisdictional Concerning the proper sphere in which authority may be exercised. “…Bitter and annoying jurisdictional feuding…continued…” 12.Checks and balances In America politics, the interlocking system of divided and counterweighted authority among the executive, and judicial branches of government. “…Roosevelt was savagely condemned for attempting to break down the delicate checks and balances…” 13.Pinko disparaging term for someone who is not a ‘red,” or communist, but is presumed to be sympathetic to communism. “Critics deplored the employment of …leftist ‘pinkos.’…” 14.Deficit spending The spending of public funds beyond the amount of income.”…better results would have been achieved by much greater deficit spending.’ 15.Left (or left-wing) In politics, groups or parties that traditionally advocate greater economic and social equality and the welfare of the...