Foreign Exchange Practice of Commercial Bank in Bangladesh

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1. DEFINITION: FOREIGN EXCHANGE

One of the largest businesses carried out by the commercial bank is foreign trading. The trade among various countries falls for close link between the parties dealing in trade. The situation calls for expertise in the field of foreign operations. The bank, which provides such operation, is referred to as rending international banking operation. Mainly transactions with overseas countries are respects of import; export and foreign remittance come under the preview of foreign exchange transactions. International trade demands a flow of goods from seller to buyer and of payment from buyer to seller. In this case the bank plays a vital role to bridge between the buyer and seller.

H.E. Evitt defined “Foreign Exchange” as the means and methods by which rights to wealth expressed in terms of the currency of one country are converted into rights to wealth in terms of the currency of another country.

Foreign Exchange Department is an international department of the bank. It deals with globally and facilitates international trade through its various modes of services. It bridges between importers and exporters. Bangladesh Bank issues license to scheduled banks to deal with foreign exchange. These banks are known as Authorized Dealers. If the branch is authorized dealer in foreign exchange market, it can remit foreign exchange from local country to foreign country. This department mainly deals with foreign currency. This is why this department is called foreign exchange department.

Foreign exchange refers to the process or mechanism by which the currency of one country is converted into the currency of another country and thereby involves the international transfer of money. It is the means and method by which rights to wealth in a country’s currency are converted into rights to wealth in another country’s currency. In banks when we talk of foreign exchange, we refer to the general mechanism by which a bank converts currency of one country into that of another. Foreign trade gives rise to foreign exchange. Foreign trade is transacted either in the currency of the exporter’s country or that of the importer’s country, or that of a third country acceptable to both the exporter and the importer.

“Foreign exchange is the system or process of converting one national currency into another and of transferring the ownership of money from one country to another.”
- Dr. Paul Einzig
“Foreign exchange is that section of economic science which deals with the means and methods by which rights to wealth in one country’s currency are converted into rights to wealth in terms of another country’s currency. It involves the investigation of the method by which the currency of one country is exchanged for that of another, the causes which render such exchange necessary, the forms which in exchange may take and the ratios or equivalent values at which such exchanges are effected.”

- Mr. H. E. Evitt

Thus foreign exchange means foreign currency and includes –

I. All deposits, credits and balances payable in any foreign currency and any drafts, travelers cheques, letters of credit and bills of exchange, expressed or drawn in local currency but payable in any foreign currency; and

II. Any instrument payable, at the option of the drawee or holder thereof or any other party thereto, either in local currency or in foreign currency or party in one and party in the other.

2. FOREIGN EXCHANGE PRACTICE OF COMMERCIAL Bank IN BANGLADESH

One of the most important businesses carried out by the commercial bank is foreign trading. General focusing states that, the trade among various countries falls for close link between the parties dealing in trade. The situation calls for expertise in the field of foreign operations. The bank is referred to as rending international banking operation which provides such services. Transactions with overseas...
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