Ap Euro: Chapter 12 Notes

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  • Topic: Florence, House of Medici, Lorenzo de' Medici
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1
Renaissance on the Italian Peninsula

Constantinople had been captured by Turks in 1453, which cut trade routes to East. Greek scholars fled to Italy with their classical knowledge and materials. ("end" of Middle Ages, "beginning" of Renaissance) 2

1st country to break with the Church
England
(Henry VIII broke from the Catholic Church to divorce and remarry) 3
# of City States in Italy
12
4
The 3 Humanist Principles

individual worth (improving humans through study)
strong commitment to public science
development of skills and talents
5
Family

Patriarchal (men in charge)
daughters marry in mid-teens to benefit both families
sons not independent until their 20s or 30s

6
Medici Family

ruling family of Grand Duchy of Tuscany
"despots" or dictators
7
Humanism

"new learning"; "civilized"
emphasize humans, their abilities & achievements
8
Quattrocento
15th Century
9
Giovanni De'Medici

founder of Medici dynasty
became a banker by ignoring Church's teachings --> provided funds for a changing economy 10
Cosimo De'Medici

used family fortune for politics
11
Lorenzo De'Medici

aka "Lorenzo the Magnificant"
excellent diplomat who balanced power
great patron of the arts
banking family that refused the pope --> the pope ordered him killed, but the assassination attempt failed 12
The Borgias

Spanish family
used bribery, torture, murder, blackmail
Rodrigo Borgias becomes Pope, marries of children to powerful families 13
Secularism
non-religious
14
Renaissance Art

Secularism (focuses on present, not afterlife)
Classics (inspired by Ancient Greece and Rome
Individualism (learning human affairs)
Power (exploration, planning, music, map making)
15
Painting

humanistic ideals
realistic figures in unnatural backgrounds
science taught art linear perspective
16
Botticelli

great artist supported by Lorenzo Medici
works show use of classical subject matter and the effect of motion (Renaissance techniques) 17
"Fresco"
"fresh", type of natural painting

'
18
"Chiaroscuro"
painting use of light and shadow
19
"Geography is Destiny"
the rich lands of Italy were an advantage because richer soil means more CA$H MONEY 20
Individualism
focusing on the human individual
21
Despots
dictators
22
Machiavelli
author of "The Prince" - ideas of how a monarch should rule
23
The Renaissance
1350-1450
24
Sfumato
painting style "without lines or borders, in the manner of smoke or beyond the focus plane."- da Vinci 25
Boticelli

supported by the patronage of Lorenzo the Magnificent.
friend of both Michelangelo & da Vinci
principal painter of the Medici family.
His works represent Renaissance style - use of classical subject matter and in the effect of motion that he achieves. famous works: Primavera and The Birth of Venus were created for the home of the Medicis 26

The "Virtruvian Man"
Drawing by Leonardo da Vinci
27
The School of Fontainebleu

artists at Francis I's palace
group of artists decorated the royal palace
characterized by refined elegance, lots of elaborate stuff
work incorporated allegory
28
Albrecht Dürer

greatest of German artists
a scholar
a scientist
self-conscious individualism
his patron was Emperor Maximilian I
29
Petrarch
father of Humanism
30
Education

spurred by humanism
founded schools for girls and boys
31
Women

denied all political rights
Christine de Pisan
Isabella D'Este
Lucrezia Borgia
32
Isabella D'Este

First Lady of the World
a diplomat; a writer
established girls schools
33
Major City-States

Florence
Milan
Venice
Naples
Papal States (Rome)
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