Chapter 10: Renaissance and Discovery Reading and Study Guide (Divide and Conquer) Taking the time to do a study guide well reduces the time required to study well for an exam. As you invest, so shall you prosper…. BIG QUESTIONS: (as you work through the chapter, keep these questions in mind) 1. What were the politics, culture, and art of the Italian Renaissance like? 2. What was the political struggle within Italy and how was it affected by foreign intervention? 3. Who were the powerful new monarchies of northern Europe? 4. What was the though and culture of the northern Renaissance? Introduction: • From what crises was Europe recovering, during the late Middle Ages? • What place did the vernacular have in general communication? • What impact did imported American gold and silver have on science, military, and economics? The Renaissance in Italy (1375-1527) • What “approach to reality” did people begin to adopt during this time period? • What were the main characteristics of Renaissance Europe? ! The Italian City-State • What made Italy geographically unique? • How did the great Italian cities become the bankers of much of Europe by the fifteenth century? ! Growth of City-States • What assisted the growth of Italian cities and urban culture? • How did the merchant oligarchies become strengthened? • What were the five major competitive states in Italy? • What were their unique systems? • Who controlled the Papal States? • Why did the cities develop despotisms? Who ruled Venice? Oligarchy: a small group of people who together govern a nation or control an organization, often for their own purposes Despotism: rule by an authoritarian or tyrant
! How did social class create conflict? • Describe the situation within Florence. • What percentage of Florence’s population was considered paupers? • What was the Ciompi Revolt? What three factors led to it? Who came out on top? ! Despotism and Diplomacy • Who was the wealthiest Florentine? How did he control the city? What was the Signoria? What made • • • •
Lorenzo the Magnificent a cautious and determined ruler? What was a podestà? What was his job? What were condottieri? What would be the modern name for them? Which family, the Visconti or the Sforza produced Ludovico il Moro? What did political turbulence and warfare give birth to? What purpose did ambassadors serve? What elements of society promoted Italian Renaissance culture? What was the main ingredient required for patronage of the arts and literature during the High Renaissance?
Humanism • What are the three schools of thought on the meaning of “humanism?” • What is the official definition of “humanism?” • What types of lessons should be taught/learned? • Who were the Scholastics? • Where did humanists go for factual information? What is
Rhetoric: the study of methods employed to write or speak effectively and persuasively
considered the “surgeon’s tool of the humanist?”
! Petrarch, Dante, and Boccaccio • Who is considered the “father of humanism?” What did he write? • Whose writings, in conjunction with Petrarch, form the cornerstones of Italian vernacular literature? • What did Dante write? Who wrote the Decameron? What was it about? ! Educational Reforms and Goals • “Humanists were not bashful scholars.” What does this mean? • What was the goal of humanist studies? “It is better to will the good than to know the truth.” What • •
does this mean? What are the ideals of the successful courtier and who created this ideal? What was unique about Christine de Pisan? What did she write?
! The Florentine “Academy” and the Revival of Platonism • Which Greek scholar was studied the most? How did Florence become the center for Greek studies? • •
Who sponsored the Florentine Platonic Academy? What was the function of the Florentine humanists? What was the appeal of Platonism? What was the essence of Platonism? What was the Oration on the Dignity of Man? “Humans are the only creatures in the world” to do what?...
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