NucleusContains genetic material, which controls the activities of the cell CytoplasmMost chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes Cell membraneControls the movement of substances into and out of the cell MitochondriaMost energy is released by respiration here
RibosomesProtein synthesis happens here
Extra parts of plant cells
Cell wallStrengthens the cell
ChloroplastsContain chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis Permanent vacuoleFilled with cell sap to help keep the cell turgid
A bacterium is a single-celled organism. A bacterial cell has a different structure to an animal or plant cell. It has cytoplasm, a membrane and a surrounding cell wall, but the genetic material in a bacterial cell is not in a distinct nucleus. Yeast Cells
Yeast is a single-celled organism. Like bacterial cells, yeast cells have cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall. But unlike bacterial cells, yeast cells have a nucleus. Specialised cells
Cells may be specialised for a particular function. Their structure will allow them to carry this function out. Here are some examples: Examples of the functions of cells
Leaf cellAbsorbs light energy for photosynthesisPacked with chloroplasts. Regular shaped, closely packed cells form a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight.
Root hair cellAbsorbs water and mineral ions from the soilLong 'finger-like' process with very thin wall, which gives a large surface area.Sperm cellFertilises an egg cell - female gameteThe head contains genetic information and an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane. The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The tail moves the sperm to the egg.
Red blood cellsContains haemoglobin to carry oxygen to the cells.Thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse through easily. Shape increases the surface area to...