Animal and plant cells
Contains genetic material, which controls the activities of the cell Cytoplasm
Most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes Cell membrane
Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell Mitochondria
Most energy is released by respiration here
Protein synthesis happens here
Extra parts of plant cells
Strengthens the cell
Contain chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis Permanent vacuole
Filled with cell sap to help keep the cell turgid
A bacterium is a single-celled organism. A bacterial cell has a different structure to an animal or plant cell. It has cytoplasm, a membrane and a surrounding cell wall, but the genetic material in a bacterial cell is not in a distinct nucleus. Yeast Cells
Yeast is a single-celled organism. Like bacterial cells, yeast cells have cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall. But unlike bacterial cells, yeast cells have a nucleus. Specialised cells
Cells may be specialised for a particular function. Their structure will allow them to carry this function out. Here are some examples: Examples of the functions of cells
Absorbs light energy for photosynthesis
Packed with chloroplasts. Regular shaped, closely packed cells form a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight.
Root hair cell
Absorbs water and mineral ions from the soil
Long 'finger-like' process with very thin wall, which gives a large surface area.
Fertilises an egg cell - female gamete
The head contains genetic information and an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane. The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The tail moves the sperm to the egg.
Red blood cells
Contains haemoglobin to carry oxygen to the cells.
Thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse through easily. Shape increases the surface area to...
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